Tag Archives: Dorotheus

Traditional Astrology of Death | Kirk Kerkorian with a Multitude of Special Techniques

The recent death of Kirk Kerkorian has generated a lot of buzz in my stomping grounds of Southeast Michigan, as he was a major player in business in this area from his involvement with the auto industry.  He died on 6/15/15, just 9 days after his 98th birthday. I won’t be analyzing his life in this post, and instead will use his death at a very advanced age to compare and contrast a number of length of life techniques that were presented in the first 5 centuries of the common era by Hellenistic astrologers.

Kerkorian was reportedly born at Noon, which is somewhat suspicious (he likely was born within minutes before or after) on 6/6/1917 in Fresno, CA. His birth data is AA rated for accuracy. Most length of life techniques involve primary directions which are very strongly dependent on the exact time of birth, so a roughly accurate indication, such as within a year, is sufficient for our purposes, given that the birth time may be rounded from within a few minutes which could put the indication by primary directions off by even more than year in some cases.

Part I: Special Techniques

I am not going to fully explain and evaluate each length of life technique as that is an extremely labor intensive manner that I am currently taking on for a possible book. I’m going to look briefly at the indications according to a number of length of life techniques, and then discuss some general timing techniques that relate to the timing of death. Those interested in an overview of the length of life techniques of the Hellenistic era, can find such in a previous post on the topic.

The Hellenistic techniques for length of life are not foolproof.  They have their issues, so a thorough reading of this post and my other posts on the traditional astrology of death will not give you the power to predict the length of life for other people using these techniques (not that you’d necessarily want to after reading my results). Therefore, upon learning about these techniques, do everyone a favor and don’t predict death for people, because it will make you a liar and unethical. I analyze charts using the Hellenistic length of life techniques in service of their evaluation and the furthering of historical astrological knowledge only.

Kirk Kerkorian's Natal Chart
Kirk Kerkorian’s Natal Chart

The Manilius Technique (early 1st century CE)

The Roman astrologer Marcus Manilius, provided a very brief set of rules for assigning years to each zodiacal sign and each house for length of life, but never fully explained how to use them. He did say that the Moon’s placement in the houses indicated the years, but didn’t explain what to do with the years of the signs at all. This exposition starts at line 560 in Book III of Astronomica. Unfortunately, Manilius tells us that his section is just for conveying the years allotted to the signs and houses, and that the full exposition will follow later in the work, but he never does explain the technique. He begins his exposition about the years of the houses by noting that if the Moon is in the 1st house she grants 78 years. Therefore, my best guess is that house of the Moon indicates the years, and perhaps the years of the signs (which are all small amounts) are added to those indicated by the houses.

The Moon in Kerkorian’s chart was in Capricorn, which is the 5th house. Manilius asserted that Capricorn grants 14 2/3 years and the 5th house grants 63 years, so we may suppose that the indication by the technique is 77 2/3 years, which is an incorrect indication as he lived to age 98. Typically in Hellenistic techniques, the sect light or one of its rulers (particularly the bound lord) is the most important planet for longevity indications. The sect light (the Sun) is in Gemini (14 2/3 years), the 10th house (77 years), so indicates 91 2/3 years. Venus is the bound lord and only aspecting lord of the sect light, but she is in the same sign and house so she indicates the same. 91 2/3 years is closer but still incorrect. In conclusion, Manilius does not provide enough information for use of his technique, and the most logical guesses regarding its use don’t yield accurate indications.

The Dorothean Technique (1st century CE)

According to the technique explained by Dorotheus (1st century CE), the Sun in Kerkorian’s chart would be the important significator to use for length of life, as it is the sect light at the time of birth (Sun by day; Moon by night), it is in one of the 3 most advantageous places (it is in the 10th place/sign from the Ascendant or rising sign), and it is with its bound lord, Venus, in the same sign.

Kirk Kerkorian's Natal Chart
Kirk Kerkorian’s Natal Chart

Death is said to be indicated by the bound in front of the Sun that is ruled by or aspected by a malefic (exactly to a degree within the bound) without any aspect of a benefic (exactly to a degree within the same bound). Jupiter and Mars are in the same degree in Kerkorian’s chart, so Jupiter will take away the power of a lethal aspect from Mars in all cases. Saturn is at 27 Cancer while Jupiter is at 24 Taurus and Venus is at 26 Gemini, so the possibilities for Saturn to aspect a bound that is not accessible to aspect from Jupiter or Venus is also limited.

Very soon after birth, the Sun enters the bound of Mars in Gemini, which is malefic and has no benefic casting a ray into it. He obviously did not die shortly after birth. One may suggest that the already applying bodily conjunction between the Sun and Venus was responsible, or that the indication by bound ruler itself is a much weaker indication than an aspectual one from a malefic.

The next malefic bound was that of Saturn and that was occupied by Venus, so is protected, according to the Dorothean method. From there the Sun entered the Mars bound of Cancer, which is also not aspected by a benefic, though one may argue that the aspect of the Moon intervenes. The Jupiter bound of Cancer is aspected by Mars, but also Jupiter, so is protected.  However, note that the Saturn bound of Cancer is occupied by Saturn and has no benefic aspecting the degree. Therefore, by the Dorothean technique we should expect the death to occur when the Saturn bound of Cancer or exact position of Saturn directs over the Sun.

Dorotheus used the distance between the two in ascensional times. Using a table of ascensions for Gemini and Cancer at about 36-37 degrees north of latitude, we find that each zodiacal degree of Gemini will equate to about 0.974 degrees of ascensions (0.974 years of life) and each degree of Cancer will equate to about 1.171 degrees of ascensions (1.171 years of life). There are about 14 1/2 degrees of Gemini (14.5*0.974=14.123 years) and 28 degrees of Cancer (28*1.171=32.788 years) between the Sun and Saturn, which equates to almost 47 years by ascensions. By actual accurate traditional primary directions, the indication is almost 46 years. In any case, Kerkorian lived to age 98, so the indications by the Dorothean technique are wrong.

But, what bound does the Sun fall into after 98 years, by both ascensions and by directions through the bounds? By ascensions, we already noted that the remainder of Gemini gives us about 14.123 years, then all of Cancer gives us 35.136 years (46.259 cumulative), then all of Leo gives us 37.025 years (83.284 cumulative). So, 98 years is only another 14.716 years, or degrees of ascension, into Virgo. There is about 1.218 degrees of ascension for each zodiacal degree in Virgo, so there are (14.716/1.218=) just over 12 degrees in Virgo before the time of death. 12 Virgo is the bound of Venus. it is a bound ruled by a benefic. There is not malefic aspect of the bound but it is the bound where the square of the Sun (15 Virgo) directs to the Sun. Dorotheus does not name the square of the Sun as being a dangerous direction, but we will find that the square of the significator is significant as the indication for length of maximum life by Valens. Also, the square of Sun is considered as malefic by some later astrologers.

Perhaps more significant in relation to the Dorothean technique, is that by actual primary directions (rather than the pseudo directions which symbolically use ascensional times even for points for which ascensional times are not remotely accurate, such as the Sun on  the MC in this case), it is the bound of Mars of Virgo, that the Sun is in by directions through bounds, at the time of death.

Kerkorian the Sun directed to Bound of Mars
Kerkorian the Sun directed to Bound of Mars in October 2014

The bound is a malefic one and is aspected by both malefics, but is also aspected by both benefics, so is still problematic by the Dorothean technique, since the benefic aspects to the bound should remove the harm. Therefore, while the Dorothean technique points to directions to the significator by malefic bounds and malefic aspects to the bounds as particularly important, and they are (as illustrated also in some prior posts in this series), the assertion that such an indication MUST indicate death when lacking the intervening aspect of a benefic both over-predicts death (e.g. the direction of Saturn to the Sun) and under-predicts by failing to account for death (e.g. the directions at death, in which death is either indicated by the square of the Sun or by multiple malefic directions in a malefic bound but with benefics aspecting the same bound).

The Ptolemaic Technique (2nd century CE)

Ptolemy also would take the Sun as the significator (as it is sect light  and in the 10th place). Ptolemy advises use to look at actual primary directions involving the Sun, and not to use ascensional times. As the Sun is just past the MC (provided the birth time is not off by a couple minutes), he advises us to look at both direction of the Sun itself to the Descendant (i.e. converting the setting of the Sun into year), and the directions to the Sun of malefics (especially by body, square, or opposition according to Ptolemty). Ptolemy also appears to say that the direction from the square of the significator can indicate death.

Kirk Kerkorian's Natal Chart
Kirk Kerkorian’s Natal Chart

There is some confusion regarding his technique of directing the significator to the Descendant, as he made a comment about aspects of benefics adding to the years indicated by this and likewise of malefics subtracting years, and noted that this is by proportion of hourly times.  So, for instance, Hephaistio interpreted that the distance from significator to Descendant was to be measured in ascensions, which is a mis-interpretation as Ptolemy advised to use accurate primary directions and the use of ascensional times for points that are descending gives extremely inaccurate times.   Basically, for Kerkorian, we must first find the time when the Sun sets by directions, which indicates almost 108 years. From here, we must find the rise and set times of the benefics, malefics, and/or Mercury, when any such planets have an aspect that intervenes from the Sun’s journey to the Descendant, and then find the time it takes to go from rising to setting, divide that by 12 to convert it into an “hourly” time, and divide that by 4 to convert it into an hourly right ascensions figure, which is considered the “hourly time” of that planet. The amount added or subtracted then depends on the proportion of arc that the planet has traveled for its journey from rising to setting or vice-versa, multiple by its hourly time (i.e. if it is a benefic with an hourly time of 15 and it has 1/3 of its journey left to set1, then it adds 5 years). It is unclear whether each aspect from the planet adds or subtracts, of if we are just to add each relevant planet once.

Kerkorian rising and setting times

We would judge Mercury to malefic in the chart because it is most closely conjunct Mars.  In this case, the Sun will meet the aspects of Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury twice, and the aspect of Saturn three times before it sets.  Given the time left until they set, each of these planets individually adds and subtracts the following on their own in this chart:

Jupiter +5.3 years

Venus +10 years

Mars -6.4 years

Mercury -6.2 years

Saturn -12.9 years

If we do the additions and subtractions only once per intervening planet, then the net added is negative 10.2 years, with a life expectancy of about 98.2 years.  This figure accords with this actual length of life of 98 years. If we must add and subtract for each separate aspect then the net added is negative 33.3 years, for a life expectancy of 74.7 years. While one approach to the technique of directing to the Descendant with additions and subtractions based on hourly times appears to give a correct indication, it is also somewhat counter-intuitive. Why should we being adding or subtracting each hourly time only once, rather than adding or subtracting for each relevant aspect?

The other part of Ptolemy’s technique, and in fact the more important strategy, is to look in front of the significator to see what will direct to it. The direction of a malefic (or the Sun if the significator is the Moon) to the significator will indicate death unless the potential killing degree (aspect of the malefic) is located in a benefic bound or is aspected by a Jupiter within 12 degrees or by Venus within 8 degrees. A planet cannot save or destroy if it is under the beams of the Sun (i.e. within 15 degrees of the Sun). Mars is conjunct Jupiter, so no aspect of Mars will ever meet the killing criteria. Venus is under the beams, so cannot save. Therefore, there are some aspects of Saturn that fall without the intervention of Jupiter, but not until 27 Libra, and that is within the Venus bound of Libra, so also does not qualify. Therefore, such a malefic aspect is not possible by directions. Ptolemy notes that the square to the place of the releaser (significator) also can indicate death. However, Ptolemy insisted on use of actual primary directions rather than directing with symbolic ascensional times, and the degree of the actual direction of the square of the Sun to the Sun is in late 2009, a full 6 years before death. The actual closest direction to the Sun at the time of death was the trine of Mercury, which applying at the time and doesn’t seem particularly nasty according to Ptolemy’s guidance as it is Mercury and a trine, while Jupiter aspects within 2 degrees.

In conclusion, the technique of using aspectual primary directions as given by Ptolemy is not a reliable indicator of length of life. His much more complex technique of directing to the Descendant and then adding/subtracting by a proportion of hourly times may hold some promise, as a certain interpretation of it provided a correct indication here, but the correct results also could be due to chance, so more research is needed.

The Main Valens Technique (2nd century CE)

Vettius Valens provided numerous techniques for length of life in Book III of his Anthology, and even more techniques scattered across most of the books of the Anthology, but here I will focus on what appears to be his preferred technique and the one that relates most strongly to that of other astrologers like Dorotheus and Ptolemy.  The technique is related to the Dorothean and Ptolemaic techniques but also assesses a maximum length of life based on ascesional times from the significator to a point zodiacally 90 degrees from it, or from an angle of the chart to the next angle, and a maximum based on planetary years of the bound lord of the significator. There is a free translation of the Anthology available at this link, though I recommend the Project Hindsight translation of Book III (available for $30 as a PDF if you email Ellen Black of Project Hindsight), as its footnotes are invaluable for serious study of the technique.

Valens would also take the Sun as the significator as it is the sect light, in the 10th, and with its bound lord. Therefore, according to Valens, the Sun predominates in the chart (it is the significator) and Venus is the relevant “ruler”.

Kirk Kerkorian's Natal Chart
Kirk Kerkorian’s Natal Chart

The first determination is according to the ascensional times from the Sun’s position to the square of its position in front of it (i.e. from 15 Gemini to 15 Virgo). As noted in the section on the Dorothean technique above, there are 98 ascensional times between the Sun’s position and about 12 (to about the middle of the degree), so adding another 3 zodiacal degrees given a conversion of about 1.2 ascensional times per degree, brings us to about 101.6 ascensional times, or 101.6 years as an indication of maximum length of life.

According to Valens, we then look at the greater years of the ruler, Venus. She assigns her total greater years (82 years; or 84 years as indicated in some places in Valens and Maternus) because she is well placed. Valens advises to prefer her indication as the maximum length of life, so we conclude that the maximum length of life is 82 or 84 years.

Now, we must check to see if a malefic aspect intervenes between the Sun and its square, without a benefic aspect within 7 degrees of the same. Saturn’s direction is protected by Jupiter, as is the  square of Mars in Leo, and there are no other significant malefic directions in that span. Therefore, we conclude that the length of life is 82 or 84 years according to the indication by the planetary years of Venus. This technique leads to bad results.

It is worth noting though that the indication by ascensional times from the Sun to its square is relatively good as a maximum length of life at 101.6 years. Valens notes that the degree of the significator and the 3 degrees on either side of that degree (a 7 degree span) are sensitized, and each degree in Virgo has an ascensional time of nearly 1.3, so the death did occur within the critical span of the square of the Sun.  Therefore, the technique of using ascensional times of the square may have some value. For instance, perhaps the indication of Venus should not be used because she is under the beams (though this is not specified by Valens), in which case we prefer the square of the significator and find it to be relatively accurate.

Valens also suggests the possibility of judging from the angle prior to the hyleg, to that following it. The ascensional times of the signs from the Descendant to the MC are very small, and would provide an indication under 61 years, which is way off the mark. If we use the MC to the Ascendant, then the span is slightly longer than that of the Sun to its square, so it would add a couple  more years to the sum, giving a length of life around 104 years, which is less accurate than the square of the Sun.  Another possible apheta (starting point) is the hylegical lot calculated from the nearest New Moon (before or after birth) to the Moon position, which puts the lot at 22 Pisces. This is near the Descendant, so we would again end up with a much shorter indication of death in his sixties. I won’t be exploring further the more obscure techniques that Valens also discusses in different chapters of Book III.

We may wonder about use of the Valens technique with actual primary directions rather than ascensional times. This would not effect the indications by years of Venus, and the fact that malefic directions are protected, but it would affect the indication by the square of the Sun. The square of the Sun directs to the Sun in later 2009, when the native is 92 years old, so this indication too is not accurate.

Fortunately, or unfortunately, Valens presents so many disparate techniques for length of life in the Anthology, scattered across most of the books of the work, that we cannot hope to evaluate (or even clearly understand) them all. I won’t be exploring his other longevity techniques here.

The Maternus Technique (4th century CE)

Maternus (Book II, Ch. 26 and Book IV, Ch. 6 of Mathesis) advises to take the ruler of the sign following that of the Moon as the chart ruler. Therefore, the chart ruler is Saturn.  Saturn is in the 11th house and in its own bound so would likely be considered to provide its greater years, which are 57 years. This technique provides an indication that is very far off the mark.

Kirk Kerkorian's Natal Chart
Kirk Kerkorian’s Natal Chart

Maternus does note that there was a diversity of opinion on finding the ruler of the nativity, and that some took a planet that is in one of the principal houses of the chart and in its own sign or bound, others took the bound lord of the sect light, and others took the ruler (or exaltation ruler?) of the Moon. Only Saturn is both in an advantageous place (the 11th) and in its own bound  or sign (in this case, it’s bound), and Saturn is also the sign ruler of the Moon, but as noted, Saturn indicates only 57 years. The bound lord of the Sun  is Venus, and she indicates at most 82 or 84 years. Mars is the exaltation ruler of the Moon’s signs and can only indicate at most 66 years (but is cadent and out of sect, so may indicate less here). Basically, no matter how you slice it, the Maternus-style technique involving planetary years does not yield the correct results.

The Technique of Paulus Alexandrinus (4th century CE)

The technique of Paulus Alexandrinus combines some features of the Dorothean technique with features of the Maternus technique, to give us a hybrid planetary years technique. This technique was combined with that of Ptolemy to form the basis of the typical Medieval technique to length of life.  While in Chapter 34 of Introductory Matters, Paulus advises us to look at primary directions (by ascensions) to Ascendant, Sun, and Moon involving certain malefic planets and points, in order to assess times of crisis, he does not explicitly use directions in the context of his length of life technique. His length of life technique, which he explains in Ch. 36, has more in common with the technique of Maternus than with those of Dorotheus, Ptolemy, and Valens.

Kirk Kerkorian's Natal Chart
Kirk Kerkorian’s Natal Chart

As with Maternus, he finds a “ruler” that indicates the length of life by planetary years. His instructions for finding the ruler are similar to the instructions given by Dorotheus to find the ruler of the hyleg (i.e. he takes a ruler, not necessarily the bound ruler, typically of the sect light, and prefers it if its aspects the sect light and it is itself strongly placed).  Paulus would select Venus as such a ruler, as she is the only ruler of the Sun that sees the Sun.

Venus indicates 82 or 84 years, but planets in whole sign aspect to Venus may add or subtract years from this indication. However, there are no such planets, so 82 or 84 years are indicated (or less as Venus is under the beams), and an incorrect indication is given.

Summary Findings on Special Techniques

None of the major Hellenistic special techniques for length of life provide the correct indication when employed exactly as the authors advise.  However, there are elements of the techniques of Dorotheus  Ptolemy, and Valens that appear to have some promise.  Dorotheus clues us into the relevance of the directed bound lords and to primary directions that are within bounds. Ptolemy clues us into the importance of malefic directions and the possibility that directions to the Descendant (possibly modified by hourly times) could be significant. Valens clues us into the importance of the ascensional time length from the hyleg to its square as a possible maximum life span. The indications that are most off the mark seem to relate to use of planetary years, whether by Valens, Maternus, or Paulus Alexandrinus. Interestingly, planetary years came to provide the main indication of general length of life in the Medieval period.

Part II: Other Factors

I typically examine the astrology of death in terms of other factors that coincide with the death rather than in the context of a particular predictive technique, as no traditional predictive technique reliably and accurately predicts death most of the time, and as death is arguably one of the most important events in life, there are many indications of danger or hardship shown by predictive techniques.  Mars is arguably the most relevant planet for death in the chart as it is the out of sect malefic and rules the 8th house, as well as afflicts the lord of the Ascendant somewhat due to its conjunction with it.

Kirk Kerkorian's Natal Chart
Kirk Kerkorian’s Natal Chart


Kerkorian turned 98 shortly before his death. On his 98th birthday, June 6th, 2015, the annual profection shifted to Scorpio, ruled by Mars, so Mars is the lord of the year for the year of death. Mars is in Taurus in his natal chart, so the profection was also in opposition to Mars.

As death occurred in the first month after the birth day, the monthly profection was also still in Scorpio, with Mars as the lord of the month.

Solar Return

Kerkorian's Final Solar Return
Kerkorian’s Final Solar Return

Kerkorian’s final solar return is striking. Mars is conjunct the Sun within 3 degrees, and they are both with Mercury (lord of the natal 1st). The Sun is the main significator of life in the chart (it is the sect light and prominently placed) and here it is afflicted by the main indicator of death in the chart.  Additionally, Saturn is in Sagittarius, opposing the Mercury-Sun-Mars configuration. Both benefics are also in Leo, which is the 12th house of the natal chart, and said to be an ineffective place.

Distributor: Directing through the Bounds

As noted above in the context of the Dorothean technique, the sect light, the Sun, had directed into the bound of Mars in Virgo in late 2014.  Therefore, the bound lord of the directed sect light was Mars, and additionally Mars aspects that bound.


The transits at the time of death are also striking, as the transiting Sun is in partile conjunction with transiting Mars (i.e. they are conjunct in the same degree), and the transiting Moon is joining them in the same sign, Gemini, which is the natal sign of the Sun. Additionally, by this time Saturn had retrograded back into Scorpio, the sign of the annual profection.  Therefore, even with the transits, we see multiple repeat indications of the them of Mars afflicting the Sun to indicate the time of death.

Transits at Time of Kerkorian's Death (exact time of day unknown) - Inner Wheel is Natal - Outer Wheel is Transits
Transits at Time of Kerkorian’s Death (exact time of day unknown) – Inner Wheel is Natal – Outer Wheel is Transits


People sometimes ask me why most of my traditional analyses of death lack the use of special techniques for predicting longevity. Here I’ve presented an answer. None of the existing longevity techniques are perfect, and the more prominent Medieval techniques for longevity are particularly inaccurate.  Though there still are plenty of additional techniques provided by Valens that require evaluation. I do advocate the use of special techniques rather than individual factors for most in depth analysis, but when it comes to death I prefer a combination of predictive techniques, as they show interesting indications, even if it would be almost impossible to know with certainty that those indications were for death rather than some other difficult event. There are elements of early length of life techniques that I make use of and that I keep in mind to regularly test, but I know of no special technique of Hellenistic or Medieval astrology that reliably indicates the length of one’s life.



Image attribution for featured image of this article (bas relief of Lachesis):

By Jim Kuhn [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Traditional Astrology of Death | A History of Length of Life Special Techniques

Now I will explain to you the length of life and the number of years as I attempt [to compute it], because sometimes you will want to consider it in a horoscopic diagram as I will show you. […] I wanted to know the places of the haylaj among which he was born because they are five places, and none of the planets was in them except in the ascendent in which the Sun was; and it is the best of the places.

But I calculated for this nativity from the degrees of the ascendent[…]

(Dorotheus, Book III, Ch. 1, Pingree trans., 2005, p. 237-238)

Note on Updates 6/28/15: Dear Reader, the history of this blog post would itself be an interesting matter for astrological analysis. This article was first published on the morning of 5/19/15, within 24 hours of Mercury stationing retrograde. Over a period of about 40 days, the post underwent 38 revisions (inclusive of this one). Many of the revisions were minor, but around 6/9/15, 6/21/15, and at this time, there were some major revisions. First, by obtaining the 2nd book of Hephaistio’s Apotelesmatics, at the recommendation of Chris Brennan, I realized that the entire first chapter of Book III of the Carmen of Dorotheus was almost certainly an addition, so I edited my treatment of that section to reflect that. Secondly, I felt that the omission of the planetary years approaches of Firmicus Maternus and Paulus Alexandrinus made it seem like there was more of a chasm between the medieval approaches and any Hellenistic approaches than there were, as the Medieval approaches are actually strongly based in the late Hellenistic approach of Paulus, so material was added to reflect this.

Today’s edit, which is hopefully the last one, is much more major and is a result of my own hubris for which I offer sincere apology. My readings of the first few chapters of the Reilly translation of Book III of Valens had led me to believe that Valens used the “ruler” (alcocoden) much like the apheta (hyleg), by judging ascensional times of its square. There are  references in the book of Mercury giving a portion of its complete years of 76, and of Venus giving her complete years of 84. I supposed (incorrectly) that these referred to ascensional time indications as: 1. Valens did not explicate the years of the planets at any point prior to these passages; 2. the complete years of Venus are (typically given as) 82 years, not 84 years; 3. Valens subtracts a portion of the 76 years of Mercury based on separation distance of Mercury from an angle, which seemed like subtraction of a portion of arc of ascensions based on portion already traveled. With a thorough reading of the Robert Schmidt translation of the same passages, with their extensive footnotes by Schmidt and Hand, I do now believe that the technique involved the complete (i.e. greater) years of the “ruler” (alcocoden). The technique still differs from the approaches of Maternus and Paulus which formed the backdrop of the Medieval technique, in that Valens only allows the bound lord to be “ruler”, does allow for no “ruler” where you just don’t use planetary years at all, only uses the complete years (at least in the context of this technique; he does do some more ad hoc stuff with minor years added to single sign ascensional times in the last chapter of the book), and does subtractions from complete years based on amount of zodiacal separation from an angle rather than by aspecting planets.

Given these revelations and the drastic evolution of the article, I thought it necessary to rename the article to reflect its nature as a historical overview. I do believe that the criticism of the Medieval approach is still relevant, as the Medieval approach tends to be a modification of a late Hellenistic approach and with it we lose both the great diversity in approach that existed in the Medieval era, and some of the greater insights of those approaches.


As I’ve been restoring some articles dealing with death and timing techniques, I think I should say a little about the old hyleg/alcocoden technique for longevity.  This is a technique that was controversially popularized by Rob Zoller a couple decades ago.  Zoller sold a couple publications on it that included heavily obfuscated translations of Bonatti’s writings on it. Notably, even promoters of this technique have a hard time finding a few good celebrity examples in which it predicts death, or even simply a very major health crisis. I remember that in Zoller’s own writings, he quickly came to the conclusion that it didn’t predict death but may predict critical periods, as it predicted a very short life for him and he did indeed have a health crisis as a child. Though when it came to examples, he was forced to make spurious alterations to the technique in order to force it to work, such as suggesting that one person may have died at the time he did because of it being midpoint or half the indicated time span.

There are intimations of the technique in early Hellenistic astrology in  Dorotheus (Book III, Ch. 2; note that Ch. 1 is likely a later addition; also see Hephaistio’s Apotelesmatics, Book II, Ch. 26 for a summary of Dorotheus which is free of the medieval corruptions), Valens (Book III), and Ptolemy (Book III, Ch. 10; Note: there’s a hyleg but nothing truly analogous to an alcocoden in Ptolemy’s technique).  It changed its flavor quite sharply in the Middle Ages with the introduction of numerical weighted dignity and particular reliance on a modified version of the approach of Paulus Alexandrinus.  My problem with this technique is threefold:

1. The medieval form of the technique (often as given by Bonatti; though the exposition in Masha’allah’s “On Nativities” is clearer) is typically presented as the authoritative version, despite it being a modification of a version probably created over 400 years after the origination of the technique and quite at odds with the original sources. It is additionally reinterpreted for modern audiences in ways inconsistent with its original use both in the Hellenistic period and the Middle Ages.

2. The alcocoden’s indications by planetary years do not consistently indicate the minimum life span of a given individual, so the Medieval technique is a misleading distraction. Valens is apparently the first astrologer to have used the planetary years of the alcocoden as a possible indication, but he himself used it as one possible indicator of maximum lifespan (provided a malefic direction to the hyleg did not cut the life much shorter), with rules as to when it should be used (and when the alcocoden simply doesn’t exist in the chart). He also took only the bound lord of the hyleg as possible alcocoden, only used the greater years of the planet (or some portion thereof; at least in the context of this particular technique), and instructed as to when the life can be judged to be much shorter than that indicated by the planetary years. The Medieval technique lacks all of these features of the early technique.

3. Traditional primary directions to the hyleg do not consistently indicate the time of death, so the Medieval form of the technique with a stress on aspectual primary direction is also a misleading distraction in this sense, or at least perpetuates a myth about the necessity of an aspectual primary direction to the hyleg. Valens himself explicitly noted that many die without such an aspectual direction and that such can happen when the alcocoden is very well-placed or there is no alcocoden and there are no planets that aspect by directions without the intervention of a benefic.

1. A History of Alteration

a. Hellenistic

The technique differs significantly from author to author in the Hellenistic period. Valens alone presents more than 3 different distinct approaches to the subject, and comments on the diversity of opinion.  One of the earliest surviving accounts is in Dorotheus (1st century CE), but that particular book of Carmen Astrologicum is the most corrupt book of the five, with one of the two chapters likely to be an addition. Our best indications of the original Dorothean text come to us from Hephaistio’s summary in Book II, Ch. 26 of Apotelesmatics, and indicate that Ch. 2 of Book III of Carmen is most likely the original Dorothean technique.  Another, possibly earlier instance of the use of length of life technique from the early 1st century CE is found in fragments attributed to the Roman court astrologer Balbilus, but the account is incomplete so I won’t consider it further here (for more on the fragment of Balbilus concerning length of life, see the article by Martin Gansten by clicking this link).  Both Ptolemy and Valens also gave their versions of the technique in the 2nd century CE. All three Hellenistic authors vary in significant ways from each other, but all stress some type of timing through primary directions, a key planet as indicator (apheta, hyleg, or haylaj), and little or no use of another planet that rules the apheta (kadhkhudah or alcocoden). The two major early approaches of Dorotheus and Ptolemy, lack any use of planetary years, while the approach of Valens appears to use planetary years as one component, but in a very different manner than their later use by Firmicus Maternus, Paulus Alexandrinus, and the Medieval astrologers.

Manilius wrote the oldest complete surviving astrological text, the Astronomica (early 1st century CE). In Book III, he discusses some means of assessing length of life by assigning years to signs (his values relate roughly to the ascensional times of the signs with Virgo and Libra assigned values roughly twice that of Pisces and Aries), though he didn’t provide directions on how to use them. He also assigned length of life based on the whole sign house that the Moon is in at birth, from the most advantageous places assigning very long lives and the so-called bad or dark places assigning very short ones (e.g. 78 years in 1st house and 77 years in the 10th house; 12 years in the 6th house, 23 years in the 12th house, and 33 years in the 8th house). Perhaps the value of the sign the Moon is placed in is to be added to the value of the house, as the years assigned to the individual signs are much less (about 10-20 years), but Manilius didn’t explain the use of the signs values. Manilius does not use the primary directions approach, so his approach is at a variance from the typical Hellenistic approach.

Maternus (early 4th century CE) also does not use a a hyleg with directions and instead bases his indications on the planetary years of the planet that rules the sign following that of the Moon, which he takes to be the ruler of the life in general, and a primary indicator for character. The technique of Maternus has much more in common with the technique of Manilius than those of Dorotheus, Ptolemy, and Valens. I discuss him further below, as his technique appears to have been synthesized with the primary directions technique by Paulus Alexandrinus (and possibly his contemporaries) to form the  basis of the Medieval approach.


Dorotheus appears to differ a bit in terms of manner of discovery of the hyleg and alcocoden between the two different chapters of Book III, which is certainly due to later insertions. This particular book of Dorotheus has significant evidence of corruption. Our translation is an English one, of a medieval Arabic translation, of an early medieval Pahlavi translation, of a 1st century Hellenistic text. Both example charts in Book III were dated to later centuries (4th century for the chart in Ch. 1; 3rd century for that in Ch. 2).

Chapter 1 of Book III of Dorotheus appears to be almost wholly a medieval insertion. In that chapter, the hyleg is referred to as the governor and the alcocoden is referred to as the indicator of length of life, with an example chart given (chart dated to 4th century CE by Pingree) in which the Sun is hyleg but the directions are taken from the Ascendant (see opening quote of this article). Chapter 2 is subject to minor corruptions, but most of the passage on finding the hyleg and alcocoden is original, as it also appears in the summary by the Hellenistic astrologer Hephaistio who was working from the Greek.  Interestingly, in this chapter, the hyleg is the indicator of length of life, and the alcocoden is the governor. The alcocoden does not appear to serve any purpose other than helping to indicate the hyleg, as a potential hyleg must have a governor/alcocoden to be selected.

Dorotheus looks to the hyleg as being the most significant planet in terms of signifying health and life in general. In his timing technique, the planets that become time lords show significant events and developments in the general course of life.

Dorotheus does not use the alcocoden at all to indicate the length of life.  In fact, the length is indicated from primary directions to the Ascendant (which is hyleg), but this time he puts particular stress on the lord of the directions through the bounds (i.e. jarbakhtar) in delineating ups and downs in health, and indicates the time of death when Saturn’s aspect directs to the Ascendant (see block quote below).  Mars is the alcocoden, but Mars does not indicate the length of life, and the interest in Mars has more to do with it as a threat, simply due to the fact that it’s a malefic planet. Dorotheus suggests that death happens when the either the bound lord of the directed Ascendant is malefic, or a malefic makes an exact aspect to a degree inside the bound of the directed Ascendant, while no benefic makes an exact aspect to a degree inside that bound (note: he directs by ascensional times rather than true primary directions- click here for an article on directing by ascensions and the use of the bounds).

There was nothing obvious from which the haylaj might be found except the ascendent. The lord of the term of the ascendent, Mars, was above the earth and near the East and the four parts which have been mentioned and [in] the place of good fortune aspecting the ascendent and casting [its] rays to that term in which the ascendent is, from above is[…]

[…] Because Saturn is in the twelfth degree, it indicates the last day of his life, and he will live after the twelfth degree forty-eight nights because Saturn is in the beginning of the degree (at 12;8º].

(Dorotheus, Book III, Ch. 2, Pingree trans., 2005, p. 243-244)

While in the example from Chapter II of Book III, the death is shown by an aspectual direction, Dorotheus makes it clear that it can also come about by the ruler of the bound being malefic if no benefic casts a ray into that same bound. For example, in my analysis of Whitney Houston’s death with primary directions, the Ascendant is hyleg according to the rules given by Dorotheus for its selection. She died while the directed Ascendant was in the Saturn bound of Taurus, which spans from 22 Taurus to 27 Taurus. There are no planets at all in her chart from 22-27 of any sign that aspects Taurus, so no planet casts its ray into the bound. This means that Saturn took over the prorogation (i.e. was the time lord), without the influence of the ray of any benefic, an indication of serious threat to health. Interestingly, these threats related to Saturn are shown also in the natal chart and reflected in a number of other timing techniques around the time of her death. Her death was by accidental drug overdose rather than natural causes.

So, to clarify, Dorotheus did not take the alcocoden to signify the length of life, and he looked at directions to the hyleg, both in terms of bounds and aspectually, as indicating the time of death. Therefore, in the Dorothean technique the hyleg describes the health and life, the alcocoden (which is the bound lord or some other ruler of the hyleg which regards it) helps indicate the hyleg, and timing is done by directions to the hyleg, both by bounds and aspectually.


Valens presents his own methods for finding the hyleg (“the control” or “apheta”) and the alcocoden (“the houseruler” or simply “ruler”) which are largely consistent with the methods of Dorotheus, though Valens puts particular stress on the bound lord as being the only lord eligible under this method, and that there simply is no alcocoden if the bound lord doesn’t qualify. The Valens material on length of life is the most complex out of all of the Hellenistic treatments, and he actually presents multiple techniques in Book III of his Anthology (as well as many more techniques in various books of the Anthology, many involving various combinations of ascensional times with minor years of plaents). I will be touching on a couple of the techniques only briefly here, as they relate to the hyleg/alcocoden type of approach. I advise careful study of Book III of The Anthology (as well as the other books) for more information. The best translation of Book III is available for purchase from Project Hindsight in ebook form for $30 (email ellen@projecthindsight.com and tell her Anthony from Seven Stars sent you). There is also a complete English translation of the entire Anthology which is available free online at this link.

As with Dorotheus, Valens appears to take the hyleg as the main indicator for length of life, with ascensional times to its square (or from one angle to the next) indicating maximum lifespan, and malefic directions to it that lack influence from a benefic, indicating a life cut short before its time.

He does uniquely use the greater years of the alcocoden as a possible stand-in for the hyleg, which is to be preferred as the indication of maximum length of life to the indication by the asensional times of the square of the hyleg, provided that there is an alcocoden and that its greater years indicate a shorter life than that indicated by the hyleg technique. However, Valens only uses the greater years of the alcocoden in this context, and only subtracts from them if the alcocoden is badly placed (such as in the 12th), then subtracting a portion of years from the greater based on the amount of separation of the planet from an angle.

Valens advocated taking the distance in terms of ascensional times from the hyleg to the point square to it (i.e. add 90 degrees to its zodiacal position and then convert that to ascensional times). However, if the hyleg is an angle, then he advises instead taking the distance from the angle to the next angle, and converting that to years by using ascensional times.  That number of years is considered the maximum length of life according to Valens and the native will live that long, provided that there is no alcocoden indicating fewer years, and that no malefic direction cuts things shorter.

Valens noted that certain aspects (those from Saturn, Mars, the Sun, and the Moon coming to a phase) to a point in the vital sector or to the hyleg (within 3 degrees on either side of the degree containing the hyleg itself such that a 7 degree areas is looked at, as explicitly specified by Valens) can cut the life short compared with the lesser of the indications by hyleg’s square and by the alcocoden’s complete years (or the portion of such).  He also notes the importance of the terms of malefics, which may imply use of distributors/jarbakhtars as in Dorotheus, but he never puts such into practice in his examples.  The technique is very complex, so see Book III of the Anthology for more details.

Medieval astrologers, like Umar al-Tabari, used quadrant house position (angular, succedent, or cadent by quadrant houses) to determine if an alcocoden gave its greater, middle, or lesser planetary years, in their planetary years-based  approaches to the alcocoden. This is often thought to originate with Valens’ Book III, Ch. 3, in which he advises to set up porphyry-style houses (i.e. tri-sect each angle zodiacally) and consider the first 1/3 after the angle to be the operative degrees, the next 1/3 to be middling, and the last to be inoperative. This chapter is in the context of his hyleg/alcocoden discussion, but does not reference planetary years at all. Instead, he introduces this manner of division just after referring to operative degrees in the previous paragraph, as way of clarifying what he was referring to. The passage is below and is not in relation to planetary years at all but is in relation to finding a suitably strong planet that can be hyleg (“control” or “controller”) and alcocoden (“houseruler”).

It is necessary to consider the control to be certain if the sun or the moon is in aspect with the ruler of the terms, and if it is at an angle or in operative degrees. If it is found to be turned away, the nativity judged to lack a houseruler.

(Valens, Book III, Ch. 1, Riley trans., 2010, p. 58-59)

Again, Valens, who is the single astrologer who used planetary years more than any other in predictive techniques, did not appear to use planetary years of the alcocoden to indicate minimum life span, but rather to indicate one possible “maximum lifespan” which only comes into play under specific circumstances and always involves the greater years of the bound lord of the hyleg.

 Valens provides some explicit examples of this. In the below passages “aphetic place” refers to the hyleg, and the technique involves allotting the entire ascensional time, unless a malefic intervenes without some sort of amelioration by a benefic, in which case you deduct the portion of the arc following the malefic’s aspect degree (i.e. the length of life is the arc in right ascension from hyleg to malefic aspect). In the example below, he suggests deducting a portion of the greater years of the alcocoden based on its separation from an angle if it is badly placed (see the Project Hindsight translation of this book for more details on how that is done).

If the sun or moon are in the aphetic place, then it will be necessary to figure the total rising times (in the klima of the nativity) from the position of the apheta to the point square with it. Having found the total time, you can forecast that the native will live as many years. This forecast will be accurate if the houseruler is in its own terms or is configured appropriately, has contact or is in aspect with the apheta, and if no anaereta applies its rays and deducts from the number of years. If the houseruler is not in aspect with the controller, but is otherwise found to be favorably configured (i.e. in the Ascendant, at MC while rising), it will allot the full span of years. If it is <not at> one of the other angles, it will deduct a portion of the arc proportional to its relationship <with the rest of the horoscope>, but will allot the remainder <as the length of life>.

(Valens, Book III, Ch. 1, Riley trans., 2010, p. 59)

The technique of using the square of the hyleg, or going from one angle to the next, becomes clearer in the many examples that Valens provides.  As noted, he goes from one angle to the next if the hyleg is an angle.

An example: let a nativity in the second klima have Gemini 8º as the Ascendant, Aquarius 22º as MC. Even though the vital sector starts at the Ascendant, its ending point is by no means at the point square with it, Virgo 8º, but at IC, Leo 22º. I can forecast this total of years, unless some anaereta casts its rays. If an anaereta is in Gemini 20º, or in any degree of Cancer, or projects its rays to such a point, the native will live as many years as the number of degrees <=rising times> from the aphetic point to the anaeretic point.

(Valens, Book III, Ch. 1, Riley trans., 2010, p. 60)

Additionally, Valens presents many more methods for finding critical threats to life, including a method in which a “vital sector” is found based on a type of lot involving the distance from the New Moon closest to birth (either before or after) to the Moon’s position at birth, projected from the Ascendant (see Book III, Ch. 7).  The Medeival “pars hyleg” (prenatal syzygy to natal Moon, projected from Ascendant) appears to be a corruption of this lot, as for this lot Valens instructs that the lot is constructed from the nearest New Moon rather than from the prenatal syzygy (i.e. postnatal New Moon if the birth is after the Full Moon).  Confusingly, Valens advises to take it from birth Moon to postnatal New Moon if birth is preventional, but then to project it in the opposite direction from the Ascendant toward the MC, which is exactly the same as a lot taken from the postnatal New Moon to the Moon, projected in the usual manner. This lot is used as an exact stand-in for the hyleg, in which we look to the square from it as a maximum life span (by ascensional times), compare that with the indication from its bound lord if its properly situated, and then compare that with possible malefic directions (by ascensional times) in which the malefic is strong enough to kill and there is not intervention from a benefic aspect. Again, we take the shorter indication of length of life among the three. What is common among most of the longevity techniques of Valens is that there is some sort of “vital sector” of the chart which indicates lifespan by ascensional times, either by the length of the vital sector itself or by the length from its beginning to a particularly difficult malefic aspect.

Valens also provides a technique involving the lunar nodes, and a much later technique at the end of Book III, in which ascensional times of individual signs are added to minor years of individual planets to create sums that indicate lifespan (without clear directions as to how this technique is to be used; though it is also explored in Book II and possibly in some later books). The great diversity of techniques in Valens is in stark contrast to the homogenization of the length of life approach in the Medieval period and provides many interesting avenues for further research. While Valens does appear to make use of the greater planetary years of the bound lord of the hyleg, at least in some circumstances, he does so in a way that is not consistent with the later Medieval approach, in terms of selection of the alcocoden, the number of years to assign, and what these years indicate.


Finally, Ptolemy also writes on the length of life in Chapter 10 of Book III of the Tetrabiblos (click here for a link to a translation online). However, he really has only 2 parts, a hyleg and killing point, with no alcocoden in his technique. His instructions for finding the hyleg were considered by almost all astrologers commenting on the technique in the Middle Ages, as it notably differed in some ways with the instructions given by Dorotheus. Aside from a lack of alcocoden, some components of Ptolemy’s approach to the hyleg that differ strongly from others is that he appears to have used an idiosyncratic equal house division to identify operative places and he appears to only want to accept the Sun or Moon as hyleg if they are in the 1st, 11th, 10th, 9th, or 7th place of that division. This differs from Dorotheus, as Dorotheus seems to have only taken the hyleg if in the 1st, 10th, or 11th whole sign house (he only names those in Ch. 2 and in the summary by Hephaistio, and he definitely did not permit possible hylegs if they were in the 9th whole sign house).  If they are not in those places then he advises to take the planet with the most forms of testimony (domicile, exaltation, triplicity, bound, or whole sign aspect) over 3 key spots in the chart, as long as that planet has at least 3 total testimonies among the places and is in a position of greater authority than the lights. Only if this also fails does he consider using the Ascendant if the birth was by day. If the birth was by night, he takes the Ascendant if the birth was after a New Moon, but the Lot of Fortune if birth was after a Full Moon.

From there, Ptolemy determines length of life by means of primary directions involving the hyleg. He appears to direct planets and points to the hyleg as is usual in primary directions, but also suggests directing the hyleg itself if the planet or point of the hyleg already passed the MC in the daily rotation, because then you want to see when it directs to the Descendant. The Descendant is symbolic of death, being the point where planets disappear (i.e. western horizon).  In any case, Ptolemy recommends the usual technique of looking for a malefic direction to the hyleg, and insists upon more accurate calculation of the direction, rather than reliance on ascensional times. Most of Ptolemy’s discussion of length of life actually involves his attempts to explain how to accurately use primary directions and why ascensional times don’t work well for points other than the Ascendant. What is conspicuously absent from Ptolemy’s technique for determining  the length of life is an alcocoden and any use of planetary years. In Book IV of the Tetrabiblos, Ptolemy advises to look at directions to the Ascendant for matters concerning the body.

Conclusion Regarding the 3 Main Approaches

What is common among the three early Hellenistic authors using hyleg and alcocoden significators is that there is very little use of indication of length of life by planetary years of the alcocoden, and that the indication of time of death is not necessarily by an aspectual primary direction to the hyleg (though many Hellenistic authors do indicate as such if benefics don’t intervene). These are important points, as these become the cornerstones of the later Medieval technique (i.e. that the alcocoden indicates length of life by planetary years and that the timing of death is by aspectual primary direction to the hyleg).  In the early Hellenistic era, when it comes to timing it is by primary directions, but may be those to the square of the hyleg (or a hylegical lot), from one angle to another,  or to the Ascendant, and may also be shown by the bound lord of the directed hyleg (i.e. the distributor or jarbakhtar). Also, ascensional times are typically preferred to actual primary directions. When it comes to use of planetary years, it is only the bound lord of the hyleg, in certain circumstances, that can indicate a maximum lifespan related to its greater years, and the actual lifespan may be much shorter than that indicated by the bound lord (due to a malefic direction to hyleg).

Late Hellenistic: from Maternus and the Years of the Chart Ruler to the Synthesis of Paulus Alexandrinus

As far as I’m aware, the earliest appearance of an exceptional Hellenistic technique for length of life relying heavily on different levels of planetary years (greater, middle, and lesser) is found in Book II, Ch. 26 of the Mathesis of Firmicus Maternus. This technique is only found in this 4th century Roman text and does not involve the typical hyleg/alcocoden type of features in its approach, nor does it involve primary directions. However, the technique was awkwardly combined with the techniques of Dorotheus and Ptolemy by Paulus Alexandrinus to form the foundation of the Medieval approach to the length of life technique.

The technique of Maternus is more closely aligned to that of Manilius in which some planet indicates some number of years based on its placement, but in the approach of Manilus the number of years are given by the sign and/or house of the planet (apparently the Moon for the house signification; see Manilius, Book III, #560-617), while in the Maternus technique the ruler of the nativity signifies the length of life based on its own planetary years and the strength of its position. The ruler of the nativity is the giver of life and signifies the number of years. Maternus provides instructions for finding the ruler of the nativity in Book IV, Ch. 6, and in his instructions he does appear to relate some methods that are discussed in Dorotheus and Valens in relation to the alcocoden (the likely reason why this method came to be used with the alcocoden in the Middle Ages), such as noting that some use the bound lord of the sect light as the ruler of the nativity.

Maternus advises that the best technique for finding the ruler of the nativity (and thus the giver of years) is to use the ruler of the sign following the Moon’s sign.  However, the Sun and Moon cannot be the ruler of the nativity, so you must take Virgo (Mercury) if the Moon is in Gemini or Cancer at birth (i.e. you skip the signs of the Sun and Moon because they can’t be the ruler of the nativity).  For example, if the Moon were in Scorpio at birth, then the ruler of the nativity would be Jupiter, as it rules Sagittarius, which is the next sign the Moon will occupy after birth. Another example is that if the Moon were in Cancer at birth, then the ruler of the nativity would be Mercury, as it rules Virgo, which is the next eligible sign that the Moon transits after birth (a sign ruled by the Sun or Moon is not eligible). The ruler of the nativity is both the single most important planet for describing the person and also is indicative of the years someone will live. For instance, a well-placed Jupiter as ruler of life will signify a lifespan of 79 years, and will make for a magnanimous character; a well-placed Mercury as ruler of life will signify a lifespan of 108 years and a learned character.

The approaches of most other Hellenistic astrologers relied upon various methods of timing through primary directions rather than upon significations by planetary years. When the approach of Maternus was taken up and combined with the other approaches to the hyleg by Paulus Alexandrinus, the preferred approach to finding the giver of life that is suggested by Maternus was dropped and instead the special ruler of the hyleg (typically the bound lord) was used instead. As with the seemingly simplistic technique of Manilius, one may question the value of the simple technique used by Maternus of putting such important significations as the length of life and main character traits into one planet that rules the sign after the sign in which the Moon is placed.

Roman astrologer Paulus Alexandrinus, in Book II, Ch. 36, of his Introductory Matters (late 4th century CE), presents his approach which combines features of the hyleg/alcocoden technique with the planetary years technique of Maternus. It is not as much of a synthesis as found in the Medieval Persian texts because while Paulus does deal with primary directions, it is in another chapter on times of crises (Ch. 34) and he advises there to look at directions to the Sun, Moon, and Ascendant, rather than specifically to a hylegical significator. In Chapter 36, he is instead interested in the chart ruler, as was Maternus, but his method of finding the chart ruler is something of a variation on the Dorothean approach to finding the governor or alcocoden rather than the preferred approach of Maternus.

When Paulus finds the planet with the “rulership”, he assesses the length of life by planetary years in a similar manner as Maternus. There are some key differences in the approach of Paulus to that of  Maternus in how years are assigned (I refer to the “rulership” planet as the governor here):

1. Paulus allows the Sun and Moon to be governor (i.e. to assign years as length of life).

2. Paulus insists that any of the 5 planets (i.e. excluding the light) that regard the governor add their minor years, including malefics as long as they are well placed and in a place they rule, though the malefics (Saturn or Mars) subtract their years instead if they are not in such place. Benefics cannot subtract years, but fail to add any years if they are in hard aspect to the governor (i.e. whole sign square or opposition) and are retrograde, under the beams of the Sun, or cadent (in the whole sign 12th, 6th, 9th, or 3rd).

Therefore, in Paulus we find the synthesis of the method for finding a governor or alcocoden that is based in the approach of Dorotheus, with an assigning of planetary years to the governor that appears to be a variation on the approach of Firmicus Maternus, with the Lights now also permitted to be governor and with the 5 planets possibly adding or subtracting years from the significations of the governor. Paulus doesn’t seem to put as much stock into judging the length of life by primary directions, but does advise looking at primary directions to the Sun, Moon, and Ascendant by malefics (and the lights) for assessing points of crisis, though calculated using ascensional times (as was done by Dorotheus and Valens).  The Medieval techniques can be seen as extensions of the technique of Paulus which seek to further synthesize the two approaches (such as by looking at the planetary years of the alcocoden, then also trying to direct the alcocoden) and fine-tune the rules for when planets assign their greater, middle, or lesser years and how other planets add or subtract years.

b. Medieval

Masha’allah (8th century CE) in his work, The Book of Aristotle, makes some minor changes to the technique, but there does not appear to be a stress on planetary years in his treatment in The Book of Aristotle. Masha’allah is relatively consistent with approaches in the Hellenistic tradition when it comes to choosing the hyleg and alcocoden, stressing that the alcocoden should be the bound lord of the hyleg.  However, he does stress that a planet be preferred that has more than one type of dignity (notably he states that 2 minor forms of dignity would trump having domicile only) at the position of the hyleg. There are also some differences when it comes to indicating length of life. He names four methods for calculating length of life and 3 of them involve aspectual primary directions, while the fourth is a more obscure technique involving the lot of fortune.  The stress on primary directions is consistent with the Hellenistic tradition, but the stress on them being aspectual and to the hyleg or alcocoden, presages a leaning toward Ptolemy in the technique in which an exact primary direction to the hyleg came to be believed necessary as an indication of death, rather than the Dorothean approach of a malefic ruling the bound or exactly aspecting the bound with no benefic casting a ray into the same bound. To be fair, Masha’allah does acknowledge later in the section that the threat can be shown by the jarbakhtar (directions through the bounds).

A minor remark in Masha’allah’s Book of Aristotle regarding those with an afflicted hyleg and how the Sun would only grant 19 years, months, or days to such people, and similar with the rest of the planets, suggests the introduction of planetary years into the Medieval technique. Though Masha’allah in the other passages continues to stress the primary directions and does not explicitly advise the use of planetary years of the alcocoden or any planet as signifying a minimum or maximum length of life.

The Medieval technique that we know today, in which the alcocoden is used to determine the length of life based on planetary years becomes prominent in Persian astrology with Masha’allah’s On Nativities (in Works of Sahl & Masha’allah, translated by Ben Dykes), as well as in Umar al-Tabari’s work on nativities (see his treatment in Ben Dykes’ compilation, Persian Nativities II). In On Nativities, Masha’allah specifically advises that the alcocoden (or “kadukhudhah”) signifies the length of life and that it is taken by planetary years, and you judge whether to give the greater, middle, or lesser years of the planet according to  the condition of the alcocoden.  It appears to be around this point in time that the planetary years approach of Firmicus Maternus and Paulus Alexandrinus gets shuttled into the Medieval technique and comes to be one of its key features. Additionally, in this text Masha’allah advises that benefics and malefics in aspect to the alcocoden add or subtract years or months from its significations in accordance with the lesser planetary years of the aspecting planet and the condition of the aspecting planet. Therefore, we see the use of the addition/subtraction technique of Paulus, but already with variation from the way that he used it. When it comes to timing, Masha’allah takes the direction to the alcocoden of a malefic that impedes the alcocoden to be the indicator of timing of death.  The use of the alcocoden instead of the hyleg as the directed point indicating death is at a variance from the typical Hellenistic approach.

As this is only a blog article, I won’t go more in depth into the Medieval permutations of the technique, as it is clear that it was around the 8th century CE, with Masha’allah and Umar al-Tabari, that the key features of the technique were established involving planetary years of an alcocoden added to and subtracted from  by aspecting planets (variations on the method of Paulus) combined with an emphasis on an aspectual primary direction to the hyleg or alcocoden as the indication of death (variations on the method of Ptolemy). Later authors writing in Arabic echoed the stress on planetary years of the alcocoden, and this remained the mainstay of the technique in the later Middle Ages, such as in Bonatti’s Book of Astronomy.

c. Modern

As this technique has been taken up by modern astrologers, the later permutation involving a length of life shown by planetary years and a death shown by an aspectual primary direction to the hyleg has become the popular presentation.  There is precedent in Hellenistic astrology for the latter stress on primary direction to the hyleg (or at least some significant point), but the strong reliance on planetary years of the alcocoden is much more suspect.  This permutation has its roots in the late Hellenistic period but does not appear to be consistent with the approaches in the early Hellenistic period.

Additionally, certain key changes have been made in terms of the philosophical underpinning.  In ancient astrology, the type of death indicated could be of a multitude of types, as internal and external factors were both indicated in the natal chart, such that the cause of death could be as varied as death by disease, death in a fire, death by execution, death by accident, etc. In modern forms, this technique is often taken to be one concerned with internal “health”. In modern times, it is often presented as one in which the alcocoden by planetary years signifies the allotted length of life before the onset of serious health crises.  The original technique was couched in terms of danger and critical periods, with the possibility that afflictions may not lead to death if a benefic intervenes.  They did not refer specifically and exclusively to internal health concerns, so such a reading may be inaccurate, failing to take into account other types of dangers. While modern medical advances may help to avert or remediate some internal natural health difficulties, there are also numerous additional ways that one can die by accident in the modern world; types of accidents that didn’t exist in the ancient world. In his chapter on crises, Paulus Alexandrinus even goes out of his way to specify that the crises indicated by malefic primary directions to the lights or Ascendant might not always involve disease but could be as varied as a lawsuit, a shipwreck, or being stuck in a foreign country. There is no reason to think that indications from a length of life technique need involve disease and not one of the many other possible causes of death.
This technique is not traditionally one concerned only with physical internal health, but with threats to life and limb of all varieties, with separate techniques existing for trying to ascertain the nature of such threats.

Additionally, at least for Valens, the indications of longevity pertained to “maximum lifespan” rather than to minimum.  For him, all sorts of threats could end the life before this time, rather than the timing technique guaranteeing a certain number of years. It is inconsistent with the original approach to interpret the length of life indication as providing a guaranteed time frame in which one is free of serious health crises. I am reminded of Orson Welles whose life was plagued by serious health crises, particularly related to spinal problems, from a young age, yet lived to age 70 (about the time for the Moon to direct to the Descendant).  Similarly, if such an early death were indicated for Robert Zoller, and this was a minimum after which he would be plagued with significant health difficulties pushing toward death, then it seems doubtful that he would have gone on to have as long a life as he has.

2. Alcocoden’s Planetary Years Don’t Reliably Indicate Lifespan

When I first learned the technique as given by Bonatti, I applied it to dozens of charts, only to find out that his Medieval form of the technique didn’t work. The truth is that the planetary years of the alcocoden with the additions and subtractions by aspecting planets, does not indicate either a minimum or maximum lifespan in a reliable fashion. There are those that live much shorter lives than indicated by the alcocoden in planetary years, and those that live much longer lives.  Nor do the planetary years of the alcocoden necessarily indicate a period of threat to health. There is simply no reliable correlation there. Given the complexity of computing the alcocoden and its planetary modifications, and the poor results that it yields, it is simply a poor technique to use when assessing threats to a person’s well being, and it distracts from more important techniques, such as the use of the directions to the Ascendant and/or the hyleg and/or the lights (by your preferred approach), both by bounds and aspectually, and both to their squares (or the next angle) as well as to malefics.

There are many different permutations of the technique of using the alcocoden with planetary years. For instance, the technique of Valens witll give a totally different indication from that of Firmicus Maternus, and both from that of Paulus Alexandrinus, and all three from that of Guido Bonatti.  The Medieval versions of the technique are particularly confusing and convoluted as the rules for assigning which set of years to the alcocoden and for adding or subtracting years of the planets are both somewhat vague and differ from author to author (they are actually clearer and more concise in the version given by Paulus).  Due to the numerous variables, many astrologers simply manipulate the technique to assign years slightly differently depending on what chart they are using to match the facts in hindsight. I’ll have to advise that the reader provide me with their preferred source for the Medieval technique and I will provide them with some notable examples of its inefficacy when used consistently over a few example charts. For more on this, one may see the comments section of the post on the death of Whitney Houston, where there was a discussion of the technique relative to her chart.

Perhaps if we are to consider the planetary years technique then we should use it in one of the ways suggested by Valens, Maternus, or Paulus, rather than those of later Medieval astrologers providing variations on the Paulus technique 300-400 years after it.

3. Exact Primary Directions to the Hyleg Don’t Reliably Occur at Death

As the Middle Ages progressed into the Renaissance, the belief that some exact primary direction to the hyleg would always signify death became more entrenched. In Hellenistic astrology, we find a great stress placed on directions involving the Ascendant, and on the Ascendant’s direction through the bounds. In Ptolemy (Book IV, Ch. 10) and Dorotheus it is often the primary directions pertaining to the Ascendant (including directions through the bounds) that are most significant for timing bodily injury. It is my experience that primary directions are significant for the timing of death, but that they can be indicated even by the activation of a significant malefic in the chart as distributor of the Ascendant, or other hyleg, by primary directions. There is simply not always an important aspectual primary direction from one of the designated anaeretic planets within a degree at the time of death, and the belief that there must be can distract from accurately reading threat in timing techniques. I believe I’ve already provided some examples of this in some of the prior posts in this series, which you are welcome to review. If the hyleg is typically the sect light, and directions of the Ascendant are often significant to health, then we may even question the value of finding the hyleg, since we may cover more ground simply by paying attention to the directions, and directions through the bounds, of the Ascendant and sect light (as I did in my previous posts on the traditional astrology of death).

Overall, more research on the Hellenistic hyleg techniques are needed. There may be use of the hyleg yet, such as in the Dorothean approach, in which the voyage of the hyleg through bounds provides us with one of the most significant time lords of the period (the bound lord) and the planets that aspect the same bound participate with that time lord in sequence, or in one of the approaches of Valens in which the ascensional times of the square of the hyleg and the planetary years of the bound lord of the hyleg may provide a maximum life span when no malefic directions are particularly threatening. In this sense, a properly applied technique may help us to highlight the most significant factors and separate the wheat from the chaff.


The hyleg/alcocoden technique re-emerged in our contemporary world as a controversial selling point for the study of medieval astrology. Occasionally, it rears its head again in that guise, despite the availability of clearer translations of source texts and abundant natal data with which to test such techniques. I advise the reader to experiment with and compare the various longevity techniques proposed by Dorotheus, Valens, Ptolemy, Masha’allah, Bonatti, and others, but beware of the puffery of Medieval astrologers.  There may be some great utility to the hyleg and alcocoden as significators that are being overlooked, but I suspect that some permutation of the style of their usage by Dorotheus and Valens has more potential than any later synthesis found in authors of the Middle Ages which relies heavily on planetary years. It is also worth mentioning that there are a variety of disparate approaches in the Anthology of Vettius Valens that have yet to be tested, most of which approach the length of life calculation in ways quite different from these techniques.


al-Tabari, U., & al-Hasib, A. B. (2010). Persian Nativities II:  ’Umar al-Tabari and Abu Bakr. (B. N. Dykes, Trans.). Minneapolis, MN: The Cazimi Press.

Bishr, S. ibn, & Masha’allah. (2008). Works of Sahl & Masha’allah. (B. N. Dykes, Trans.). Minneapolis, MN: The Cazimi Press.

Dorotheus of Sidon. (2005). Carmen Astrologicum. (D. Pingree, Trans.). Abingdon, MD: Astrology Center of America.

Manilius, M. (1977). Astronomica. (G. P. Goold, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Loeb Classical Library.

Masha’allah, & al-Khayyat, A. ’Ali. (2009). Persian Nativities I: Masha’allah and Abu ’Ali. (B. N. Dykes, Trans.). Minneapolis, MN: The Cazimi Press

Maternus, J. F. (2011). Mathesis. (J. H. Holden, Trans.). American Federation of Astrologers.

Paulus Alexandrinus & Olympiodorus. (2001). Late Classical Astrology: Paulus Alexandrinus and Olypiodorus. (D. G. Greenbaum, Trans.). Reston, VA: Arhat.

Ptolemy, C. (1940). Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. (F. E. Robbins, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Loeb Classical Library. Retrieved from http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Ptolemy/Tetrabiblos/home.html

Valens, V. (2010). Anthologies. (M. Riley, Trans.) (Online PDF.). World Wide Web: Mark Riley. Retrieved from http://www.csus.edu/indiv/r/rileymt/Vettius%20Valens%20entire.pdf

Elections and the Art of Choosing Times | 4. Dorotheus on Buying and Selling


In the first post, I introduced the general rules or guidelines of electional astrology as laid out by Dorotheus in the first century of the common era.  We found that the most important factors in choosing times and the ideal circumstances surrounding those factors differed enough from typical traditional electional practice to be significant.  We then saw those general rules in application in the second post on choosing the right time to ask a favor and the third post on choosing the right time to deliver messages and perform other such mercurial tasks.

I am seeking to keep the initial posts that venture into special topics in elections as useful as possible, as well as using those topics that help to use and elaborate upon the general rules. This post takes on another very useful and broad topic, that of when to buy and when to sell things.  Again we will see application of the broad rules, as well as the introduction of place-related rules.  We will focus primarily on two techniques in Chapter 9 of Book V of Carmen, while we will also take a quick look at the other chapter on selling, Chapter 43, which pertains to various lunar phases and what they signify in elections for sales.

Buying and Selling by Lunar Connections

Besides whole sign aspects which is when the planets regard or see each other (or are co-present in the same sign, i.e. “with” each other), there are also “connections” between the planets which are the aspects by degree.  In Hellenistic astrology these were typically those aspects that were within 3 degrees of exact, regardless of sign boundaries.  However, for the Moon her applications within 13 degrees (i.e. within about a day of her motion) were her connections as she moved so fast and was so influential.  The Moon was failing to make a connection when she did not complete an aspect within the next 13 degrees of motion, regardless of sign boundaries.  This is one of the definitions of void of course, and the one that I prefer.  Some Hellenistic versions of void of course use a bigger range in which the Moon is only void if she doesn’t complete a connection within the next 30 degrees of her travel.

The connections made by the Moon are important in Dorothean elections.  This includes both her applications and her separations, as I discussed in the first post.  In this post I will use connections completed within the 13 degrees in front of or behind the Moon, regardless of sign boundaries, and considering the Moon to be void when no such connection is completed in front of the Moon (i.e. in her next 13 degrees of motion).

In an election that pertains to buying and selling, Dorotheus advises to look at the Moon as the commodity, the planet the Moon separates from as the seller, and the planet the Moon applies to as the buyer and price.  Since buyer and price are lumped together such that what is good for the buyer is good for the price, it is clear that what is meant by price is a “good deal”, i.e. the buyer benefiting from a good price.  Malefics with or regarding one of these significators shows it is in a bad state while benefics with or regarding one of these significators shows it in a good state.  As regards are by whole sign it would be rare for a significator to have no regard from a malefic, but in this there are degrees of goodness or badness, as it would be for instance much worse to have a malefic opposing a significator within 3 degrees which is very powerful than to have one in a whole sign inferior trine to it which is very weak.  What we care about most are regards from the stakes (i.e. a benefic or malefic with the planet, square it, or opposed it) and connections (i.e. aspects within 3 degrees).  You want a benefic to be with the significator, square it, opposed it, or connecting with it by some aspect, but you don’t want a malefic to do so.

Let’s use our letter election from the last post as an example chart and pretend that it pertained to the sale of a book:

Letter Election - Constrained to a date from 9/2 to 9/9

The Moon would represent the book.  The Moon is with Jupiter, regarded by Venus by sextile, connected with her sign lord by square, strong in the 1st place, is not regarded by Mars and is very weakly regarded by Saturn by inferior trine.  We would judge the book to be of very good quality.

The seller is Venus because the Moon has just separated from Venus.  Venus is square to Mars and she is not regarded by her ruler.  Venus is regarded by the Moon and Jupiter but weakly so.  Venus is also in a cadent place and retreating.  We would not judge the situation to be very favorable to the seller, and if we were electing for the seller then we’d want the state of the planet the Moon is separating from to be much better than this.

The buyer is Mercury because the Moon is applying a connection to Mercury.  Mercury is in a somewhat mixed state, being under the beams and in a mutable sign, but Mercury also shows benefit by being dominated (right-hand whole sign square) by Jupiter which it is making an applying connection to, while the connection with Mars by sextile has separated (Mercury is also with Fortune).  In conclusion, the buyer seems to be in pretty good state, and the election to buy would favor the buyer over the seller in acquiring a sound product.

Buying and Selling by the Stakes

The stakes of the chart are the four most important houses that define a cross of the signs that include the Ascendant and those signs of its same quadruplicity (cardinal, fixed, mutable).  For instance, if Gemini rises, then Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, and Pisces are the four stakes of the chart, the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 10th houses respectively.  These four places take on special significance in another technique for elections for buying and selling.

The second technique given by Dorotheus is to consider the 1st house as representing the buyer, the 7th as representing the seller, the 10th as representing the price, and the 4th as representing the commodity.  He explicitly advised us to look at how benefics or malefics are in or aspecting these places.  Some of the Dorothean elections concerning places were corrupted and changed in the later tradition, de-emphasizing position and regard in favor of the state of various rulers of the places.  Dorotheus makes no mention of the rulers of the places, as position and regard to the places themselves are the primary factors of influence here.  In fact, regard is typically not very important in these elections which tend to be more about sticking benefics in the right houses, since each of the stakes has a strong regard to the others.  It is worth noting that regards from the right side are more influential than those from the left though, as we look at those regards by sextile and trine particularly.

Let’s use the same chart as an example again:

Letter Election - Constrained to a date from 9/2 to 9/9

The buyer is at great advantage in this election because Jupiter is in the 1st house with the Moon, and Venus and the lord of the place also regard, while Saturn only regards from inferior trine.  The product also seems to be in a good state, as Mercury, the Sun, and Fortune occupy the 4th place which is dominated by Jupiter (right-hand square), occupied by the place’s lord, and regarded by Mars by inferior sextile.  The seller is not in a very bad state but not as good of a state.  The 7th place is empty and Saturn is in a superior sextile to it, but Venus is also in superior trine, so overall it is fairly neutral.  Notice, however, that it is not in nearly as good a state as the 1st place, which represents the buyer.  It is very much the same situation with the 10th place, representative of the price, which has Mars in superior trine, but is overall somewhat neutral.  In essence this appears to be an election to benefit a buyer in a sale.


In this case the techniques yielded similar but not quite identical significations.  They can be synthesized.  For instance, when electing for a buyer we can make sure that both the planet the Moon applies to and the 1st house are both attended by fortunate planets, and also try to avoid afflicting the 10th and 4th.  Similarly, for a seller the stress should be on the separation of the Moon and the 7th house.

Lunar Cycle Material

There is some additional material on buying and selling contained in Chapter 43, the last chapter of Book V of Carmen, in which signification is provided by various lunar cycles.  These cycles are of three types, those relative to the nodes, through the signs, and relative to the Sun.

Relative to the Nodes

When the Moon is closer to the North Node of the Moon she is ascending, while when she is closer to the South Node of the Moon she is descending.  An ascending Moon indicates inflated prices (benefits seller) while a descending Moon indicates deflated prices (benefits buyer).

Relative to the Signs

The half of the zodiac from Aquarius thru Cancer is the ascending half of the zodiac (i.e. the lunar half), while the half from Leo thru Capricorn is the descending half of the zodiac (i.e. the solar half).  Again, the ascending Moon indicates inflated prices (benefits seller) while a descending Moon indicates deflated prices (benefits buyer).

Relative to the Sun

From the Moon leaving the beams of the Sun to the First Quarter Moon is a time of fair prices.  From the First Quarter Moon to the opposition (i.e. Full Moon) is a time when it is best to sell (also a good time to commence litigation).  From the Full Moon to the Last Quarter Moon then it is best to buy.  From the Last Quarter Moon to the New Moon is a time when the fair and just benefit.


Altogether, we’ve seen 5 separate ways to indicate benefit will be more to a buyer or to a seller (lunar connections, stakes, nodes, lunar sign, lunar phase).  Of the five, I consider the lunar connections to be most important.  Let’s take on more look at our example chart in terms of who benefits most by all five considerations though.

Letter Election - Constrained to a date from 9/2 to 9/9

  1. The buyer benefits by lunar connection because Mercury is in better state than Venus.
  2. The buyer benefits by stakes because the Ascendant is in a better state than the 7th.
  3. The buyer benefits by nodes because the Moon is near the South Node which indicates low prices.
  4. The seller benefits by signs because the Moon is in Gemini which is in the ascending half of the zodiac, indicating higher prices.
  5. The seller benefits by lunar phase because the Moon is in the phase from Full Moon to Last Quarter (basically right at LQ), which is best for selling.

Experiment with these on your own and decide what works best in practice.  Of course, these indications may also have interesting implications for speculative purchases, such as that of stock, bonds, and commodities.  Much more research is needed in this area.

Elections and the Art of Choosing Times | 3. Dorotheus on Letters and Teaching


In the first post of this series, I presented the general rules for electional astrology as laid out by Dorotheus and explained how they contrast with the rules of the later tradition.  Namely, while electional astrology is typically conceived of as a matter of the application of the Moon and the lord of the Ascendant as they connect with the lord of the house which rules the topic of the matter, in the electional astrology of Dorotheus there is instead an emphasis on the type of sign of the Ascendant and the Moon, the strength of the Moon itself, the strength of her lord, strengthening benefics over malefics, and making the natural significator of the matter more prominent.

In the second post of this series, I ventured into special topics in elections by discussing the guidelines for electing a time to ask a favor.  In that post we saw a reiteration of the importance of a strong Moon and strong natural significators.

In this post, we will again deal with a special topic, and while more narrow than asking for favors, it will be one very commonly elected for.  The issue is that of writings and teachings, including when to write to someone.  We would typically think of this in terms of when to send a written piece to someone or when to teach someone something or deliver some important information to them.  I am of the opinion that the same rules apply to other matters of writing and finalizing delivery such as signing or delivering contracts as well.  The electional side of this is dealt with in Chapter 15 of Book V of Carmen, while we will also attempt to draw information from Chapter 26 as it pertains to interpreting the event chart of when one receives a letter or some other information (such as a book).

Writing and Teaching

Dorotheus is very concise in his advise on this matter, so I quote the entire Chapter 15 below, which is one sentence:

Let this be when Mercury is with the Moon and none of the malefics is with it or aspecting it while Mercury is eastern and is not under the [Sun’s] rays or retrograde in [its] motion and the Moon also is free from the misfortunes which I wrote of [and] untroubled.     (Dorotheus, Book V, Ch. 15, Pingree trans., 2005, p. 271)

Breaking this down we notice that the key natural significator to strengthen in the matter is Mercury, not surprisingly.  As is always the case with elections, we want the Moon strong.  Along with strengthening Mercury it is best if Mercury is oriental the Sun (morning rising) and not afflicted by malefics.  Finally, we want the Moon and Mercury to be linked together strongly, with it best if they are in the same sign.

I break these down because one often has to write, teach, sign, or deliver important documents frequently, and it is not always possible to do so when Mercury is direct, oriental, not in the beams, strong, not regarded by malefics, and with a strong Moon in the same sign.  In fact, it could be the case that such an ideal scenario doesn’t occur for months.  However, we see in this election the employment of the general rules which I discussed in the first post, so it becomes easy for us to clearly define the types of things that help to facilitate this action:

  1. Strengthen the Moon, as with all elections.
  2. Strengthen Mercury as the natural significator and know that a matutine (morning rising) Mercury is preferred.
  3. Make sure the Moon and Mercury are strongly linked together, with an application in the same sign being preferred.

An example may be in order.  Today is 9/2/2012.  Mercury is at 3 Virgo and is under the beams of the Sun.  Mercury will be under the beams for a while.  Additionally, Mercury is in a mutable and straight sign which is nocturnal.  Unfortunately, being under the beams and being in a mutable straight sign are not ideal.  Additionally, we have a letter that must be sent at some point in the next week, ideally at night as Mercury is in a nocturnal sign.  Mercury is at least oriental to the Sun. Our important tasks are to strengthen the Moon and Mercury as much as possible, link them together as much as possible, and also to pay attention to the signs of the Moon (and Ascendant).

Currently, the Moon is in Aries which does not see Virgo, so the connection between the Moon and Mercury is quite weak.  Additionally, Mercury is connecting (applying aspect within 3 degrees) with Mars and the Moon is opposed to Saturn.  When the Moon connects with Mercury from Taurus, she will also be applying an opposition to Mars, which is not ideal.  On the other hand, when the Moon is in Gemini she will be in one of the stakes of Mercury, in Mercury’s domicile, and with the benefic Jupiter, while not regarded at all by Mars and only regarded by Saturn by inferior trine.

The best time for such an election, in my opinion, is when the Moon is in Gemini and is rising while applying to Mercury.  This would be at moonrise, the night of the 7th, near midnight of the 8th.  Immediately after the Moon rises in Gemini, she would be on the proper side of the horizon (in halb), with Jupiter in the same sign which is fortunate, with both very prominent, while she connects with Mercury from a strong square, while Mercury is in a stake, advancing, lord of the Ascendant, with Fortune.  The benefic Jupiter would be prominent, the benefic Venus would be in the house of letters, and the malefics would be weakened.  While Mercury being under the beams is not ideal, and Mercury, the Moon, and Ascendant would all be in mutable signs which is not ideal, at least we would have made the Moon and Mercury as strong as we can and would have linked them as strongly as we can, while augmenting the benefics and diminishing the malefics.  We have found a facilitating time, during a period when overall conditions were not very facilitative of Mercurial elections.  Our connection between the Moon and Mercury is more ideal than having both in the same sign, as both together would occur on a New Moon which is one of the corruptions of the Moon.

Letter Election - Constrained to a date from 9/2 to 9/9
Letter Election – Constrained to a date from 9/2 to 9/9

Clues from the News

Chapter 26 pertains to using the event chart of when some news arrives (such as a letter or other message) to figure out when the news is about.  It is one part event chart astrology and another part natal astrology, as it looks at the relationship between event chart planets and natal positions. The basic idea is to view the event chart as a set of transits to the natal chart and to determine if benefics are influencing natal Mercury, or transiting Mercury is influencing natal benefics, or transiting Moon is connecting to natal Mercury free from malefics.  Another method is given also, in which one looks to see if it is the benefics or the malefics that are transiting the places (or the stakes of the places) of the natal luminaries (Sun and Moon) and to judge according to that.

As far as input for our Mercurial elections goes, this is not extremely helpful.  We do see that Mercury again is important though, whether one is on the transmitting or receiving end of a message, but that when looking at the event chart of the act of receiving it essentially becomes more of a matter of transit analysis.


In this special topic, as in that of asking favors, we find that the natural significator of communications, Mercury, becomes very important, and that the general rules of elections are again put to use.  For people in business or politics who must sign important documents, deliver important messages, and make important requests on a regular basis, one can see how important it would be to have a full handle on Mercury’s activities at any point in time. The implications for this particular type of election extend beyond letters to best times to sign contracts, deliver important emails, perform a lecture, make a webcast, file important legal paperwork, and even publish blog posts (I really need to use that more :-) ).  We live in very Mercurial times, so while the advice given by Dorotheus in Chapter 15 is very brief, it is some of the most versatile advice on electing that he provides.



Dorotheus of Sidon. (2005). Carmen Astrologicum. (D. Pingree, Trans.). Abingdon, MD: Astrology Center of America.

Elections and the Art of Choosing Times | 2. Dorotheus on Asking Favors


In the first post of this series, we discussed the origins and fundamentals of electional astrology which find their root in Book V of the Carmen Astrologicum or Pentateuch of Dorotheus (1st century CE).  In this post we find a nature transition point from general principles to incorporating more special techniques for specific topics.  Chapter 14 of Book V pertains to asking for favors.  This is one of the most general topics and is really at the heart of most electional types of concerns in that one is about to undertake something with considerable uncertainty and wants to ensure that things are made easier.  For instance, maybe you want to ask your boss for a raise, then you’ll both want the vibe of the time to be one of luck and generosity, and you’ll want your boss to be feeling well and in a good mood.

In the passages on the general approach to elections I noted that there was nothing on the lord of the Ascendant, which is unusual considering its prominence in medieval elections.  We did see that the lord of the Moon was important for outcome, and that there were some parallels between the role played by the Moon and that of the Ascendant (these parallels also exist in natal astrology where both can be very symbolic of the actual physical person).  It wouldn’t be too far-fetched for one to speculate if perhaps the lord of the Ascendant shouldn’t be important in a similar way to the lord the Moon.  I wonder this as well.  For now, it is important simply to note that in Dorotheus the lord of the Moon was noted as very important for outcome and the lord of the Ascendant was completely neglected in a discussion of generally important factors, and that this is pretty much the reverse of what we see in the later tradition.

Interestingly, in the matter of asking favors, the lord of the Ascendant does become an important factor, though not necessarily in a way that implies usage akin to its role in medieval elections.  As seen below, there is a need to put the Moon either in the Ascendant or strongly linked with its lord, with the former appearing to be preferred. There are some other passages in Dorotheus where the lord of the Ascendant does appear to play something of a parallel role with the Moon though, for instance in material on electing for journeys.  I think that the issue of whether the Ascendant or the lord of the Ascendant are more parallel to the Moon in signification actually has a deeper philosophical issues of signification at play.  The Ascendant carries symbolism related to the physical self, as does the Moon, while their lords would be considered more abstract, such as showing results or spirit/mentality, as eventualities and guides.  The lord of the Ascendant would be considered to pertain more to the spirit of the person and their “direction”, which also gives it an interesting parallel to the role of the Moon as the swiftest moving, journeying planet, which connects and directs planetary information.  Therefore, I think that the Ascendant has primary importance but that its lord is systematically emphasized when elections involve a need to strengthen spirits or mental activity, or the matter is that of a journey.

Asking Favors

Ask for this when the Moon is in the ascendent or in quartile to the ascendent or in trine to it while the Moon is increasing in computation and in light or the lord of the ascendent is direct in [its] motion [and] not retrograde and is with the Moon in one sign and the Moon conjoins it.   (Dorotheus, Book V, Ch. 14, Pingree trans., 2005, p. 271)

The Moon

In confirmation that the advice given in the general chapters that the Moon is strongest in the Ascendant, we find here, in a very general sort of election, appearing later in the work, that again it is advised to put the Moon in the Ascendant.  Additionally, it is advised to put the Moon in the Ascendant and have it waxing.  This is exactly the opposite of what is advised by authors like Saul of the Middle Ages, who specifically advise against putting the Moon in the Ascendant when she is waxing.  Again, I feel that this advice not to put the Moon in the Ascendant is a corruption of original electional doctrine.  Here, we find that if we cannot put the Moon in the Ascendant then we should at least put her in a sign quartile or trine the Ascendant.  The quartiles referred to are at least 2 of the other angles or “stakes”, of which the 10th house (i.e. 10th sign counted inclusively from the Ascendant) is the next strongest after the Ascendant (1st house), then the 7th, and then the 4th (though Dorotheus may not be including the 7th in this advice).  The trines are the 5th and 9th places, but the 9th is expressly advised against in the introductory material, especially if it is a mutable sign, so after the angles, we would prefer the 5th.  Dorotheus also advises to have the Moon in her own house or regarding it.  Therefore, to refine this rule, with input from the general principles:

Lunar Rules for Asking Favors: Make the Moon strong and waxing, putting her in the Ascendant if possible, or at least one of the stakes or the 5th.  Make the sign she is in one of short ascension, a fixed sign (though for a favor that can be satisfied quickly a cardinal sign may be more effective to hasten things), and/or a sign of the same sect as the time of the asking.  Make sure she is not corrupted nor impeded by malefics.  Have her fast and increasing in speed if possible and have the lord of the Ascendant direct and not stationing retrograde if possible. Also, if possible put the Moon in the same sign as the lord of the Ascendant and conjoining it, especially if you can’t get the Moon in the Ascendant itself.  Additionally, make sure the Moon is in her own place (Cancer) or regarding it (i.e. in whole sign aspect to it).  


After the Moon, Mercury becomes the most important factor for the election of asking favors.  The basic idea is that you want Mercury to be with (i.e. in the same sign as) a benefic or strongly connected to a benefic, without being in the same place as a malefic or strongly connected to a malefic.  For instance, Dorotheus advises that it is great to have Mercury with Jupiter, that is quite bad to have Mercury with Saturn or aspected by Saturn from a strong place, and that in requests made to women or involving pleasures or entertainment it is best to have Mercury with Venus.

Mercurial Rules for Asking Favors:Try to elect when Mercury is with a benefic in the same sign and not with a malefic (especially Saturn which rejects), or at least strongly linked with a benefic and not a malefic. Associate Mercury more with Jupiter for elections involving males and things like money and opportunity but associate Mercury more with Venus for elections involving females and things like pleasure, the arts, and entertainment.

Natural Significators

In this election, there is the sense in which Mercury is a natural significator of the act of asking favors itself, which is one reason there is special emphasis on Mercury and its associations. Dorotheus ends the section by advising one to strengthen certain planets which signify the one that is being asked for the favor.  For instance, one is to strengthen Jupiter if asking from leaders or nobles (or bosses?) and to make sure that Jupiter is not retrograde (stationing retrograde would be much worse in my opinion) nor afflicted by Saturn.  Similarly, he advised to strengthen Mercury if making a request to a scientist, business person, or analyst, and to strengthen Saturn if making a request to an elderly person, or someone afflicted with grief, such as a prisoner, accused, or a slave.

Rules for Natural Significators in Asking Favors: Strengthen the planet that best signifies the one to whom the request is made.


I personally favor means of evaluating planetary strength beyond the emphasis on the stakes and the direct motion found in Dorotheus.  Therefore, it is sometimes helpful to keep the language of an election more general, such as to say “strengthen the waxing Moon and link her with the Ascendant, especially by putting her in the Ascendant or conjoining its lord in the same sign”.  I find natal astrology to be the most fruitful testing ground for planetary strength and prominence as dominant themes in a life can be easy to recognize.  Ultimately, there are many strength and prominence considerations, as well as beneficence and maleficence considerations, in Hellenistic and Persian astrology and the choice and emphasis among them plays a big part in defining each astrologer’s art.  Therefore, below I summarize the most important points of electing to ask a favor in a way that is more easily adapted to the astrologer’s art.

  • The Moon should be strong, waxing, fast, in one of the facilitating signs, and able to see her own sign Cancer (i.e. in whole sign aspect to Cancer).
  • Mercury should be linked with benefics (same sign is best) rather than malefics, particularly with the benefic that pertains most to the type thing or the person being asked, and particularly avoiding influence of Saturn on Mercury.
  • Act when the Moon is prominent and linked with the Ascendant.  The best is the Moon in the Ascendant, but also very good is the Moon conjoining the lord of the Ascendant in the same sign while angular.
  • Act when the planet that is the best natural significator of the role played by the person being asked is strong.

Best wishes and happy electing!




Dorotheus of Sidon. (2005). Carmen Astrologicum. (D. Pingree, Trans.). Abingdon, MD: Astrology Center of America.

Elections and the Art of Choosing Times | 1. Dorothean Foundations


Electional astrology is one of four distinct major uses or categories of astrology.  Electional astrology is the art of choosing the right time to start something important; a time that will facilitate success.  The other three major uses of astrology are Natal astrology, which is uses birth charts to indicate things about people’s lives, Mundane astrology, which uses important cycles and astronomical events, such as equinoxes, solstices, lunations, to indicate things about worldly affairs, and Horary astrology, which uses the chart of the asking of a question to indicate the situation and the answer as a form of divination.


The earliest horoscopic astrological literature,  in the Hellenistic world of the first few centuries CE, put a particular emphasis on natal astrology.  This is in contrast to the greater preoccupation of its predecessor, Babylonian astrology, with mundane astrological indications.  Hellenisitic Astrology included major developments in the astrology of the individual.  Large tomes of new natal astrological lore were written at that time, including those of Dorotheus and Manilius of the 1st Century CE, Ptolemy and Valens of the 2nd Century, and Maternus of the 4th Century.  Natal astrology comprised the bulk, sometimes the entirety, of these large and influential works.  What is perhaps also interesting in this era is that mundane astrology seemed to somewhat wane in importance and horary astrology did not yet exist (to be developed and refined by the Perso-Arabic and the Indian astrologers).  The emphasis on an intricate astrology of the individual is interesting, and it may be this emphasis on the individual that helped to spark the ascendancy of a more complex form of electional astrology in the same period.  That a use for astrology that is so strongly linked to the will (i.e. electing a facilitating time) gains prominence along with one that focuses on the individual (i.e. natal astrology) is certainly a testimony to shifting philosophical attitudes at that time about fulfillment and fate.

The Carmen Astrologicum (“Song of Astrology” as it was written in verse) or Pentateuch (“Five Books” as it contained five books) of Dorotheus is one of the oldest surviving Hellenistic works (composed in the 1st Century CE). Its first four books dealt with natal astrology, but its final book focused on electional astrology.  This fifth book of Dorotheus laid the foundation of the horoscopic approach to electional astrology, and its influence is felt from the Hellenistic era thru the Middle Ages and Renaissance, all the way to the present.  As the roots of horoscopic electional astrology are Dorothean, I feel that a study of electional astrology should begin with a study of Book V of Dorotheus.

This sounds good in principle but there is a confounding factor at play.  The version of Dorotheus that has survived is an early medieval (about the 8th century) Arabic translation of a Pahlavi translation of the Greek work and is notoriously corrupted.  It influenced pre-medieval astrologers like Julius Firmicus Maternus and Hephaistio of Thebes, so there works can provide some guidance for reconstruction, but it does appear to differ at times from even those works.  The only known major Hellenistic work to work with the Dorothean electional material is the third book of The Apotlesmatics by Hephaistio of Thebes, which has yet to be translated into English (at the time this was written; but there is now an English translation available at this link).  Therefore, we are left with our surviving somewhat corrupted translation as our best representative of a “Hellenistic” electional astrology.  There are additional Persian works from the 8th century and beyond, which further develop the Dorothean material but often at a variance from the approach of Dorotheus and the chart principles of Hellenistic Astrology.

The recent publication by Dr. Benjamin Dykes of “Choices & Inceptions“, a collection of important medieval electional texts, is the best source for study of the Dorothean electional astrology as developed and elaborated upon by the Persians.  That text will repay years of study.  However, all serious students of electional astrology will also want to have a thorough understanding of the foundations of the art as laid out in Dorotheus and Hephaistio.

There is much in Dorotheus to suggest that electional technique was a bit broader in his day, as opposed to the later more systematic emphasis on the lord of the 1st, the application of the Moon, and the lord of the house signifying the topic.  Much like there is more than one way to skin a cat, as the saying goes, there is more than one way to bolster the helpfulness of a time in a general way, and we find a few things about these ways which were emphasized by Dorotheus that are gradually lost, or de-emphasized, in the later tradition.  I think that an understanding of Dorotheus’ approach is extraordinarily helpful in contextualizing electional astrology.


Book V can be divided into two main sections.  Chapters 1 thru 5, and Chapter 30, deal with the general principles of elections which can be applied to facilitate a diverse non-delimited range of actions, from when to start a journey to when to carry out a secret theft.  Chapters 6 thru 27, Chapter 29, Chapter 31, (Chapter 32 is natal astrology) and Chapters 33 thru 43 pertain to special considerations that pertain to specific topics, from construction to sales, and from marriage to sickness.  Topically the book can be examined as follows:

  • Rising Sign: Its fundamental importance in elections – Chapters 1-4.
  • The Moon: Its fundamental importance in elections – Chapters 4-5 and 28.
  • Natural Significators: The importance of each planet as a natural significator in elections – Chapters 3, 5, 30.
  • Asking Favors: Making requests to different types of people – Chapter 14.
  • Real Estate: Important things to examine for construction, demolition, leasing, buying land, and loans – Chapters 6-8, 10, and 20.
  • Sales: General buying and selling – Chapters 9, 43.
  • Servitude and Animals: Slaves, animals, imprisonment – Chapters 11-13, 27.
  • Teaching, Letters, and Wills: When to write or teach some topic – Chapters 15, 26 (Ch. 26 is really inceptional, i.e. an event chart, rather than electional), 42.
  • Partnership: Courtship, marriage, and the like – Chapters 16-19.
  • Journeys: When to leave and ship or vehicular matters – Chapters 21-25, 34.
  • Illness: Event chart indications and elections for medicine and dispelling spirits – Ch. 29, 31, 37-41.
  • Legal Contests: Mainly event chart indications – Ch. 33.
  • Thieves and Fugitives: Mainly event chart indications of theft, lost items, and runaways – Ch. 35-36.

Here my focus will be on the general indication sections, which focus on the Ascendant, the Moon, and the natural signification of the planets.

The Rising Sign

It is rather surprising that Dorotheus begins his book on elections with four chapters on choosing a rising sign that will facilitate success.  Most traditional electional astrology puts emphasis on the condition of the lord of the Ascendant and the application of the Moon, not what type of sign is rising.  However, the type of sign rising is the first thing noted by Dorotheus.  The first chapter introduces the book and stresses the importance of the rising sign at the start of every action, particularly whether it is straight or crooked in rising, as indicative of whether “its end will be good or bad” (Dorotheus, Book V, Ch. 1, Pingree, 2005, p. 262).  These are the admonitions of each of the next three chapters as concerns the sign rising when something is begun:

  • Crooked signs (Capricorn thru Gemini) rise fast so they facilitate quick and easy completion, while straight signs (Cancer thru Sagittarius) rise slowly so they tend to slow things down and cause trouble. Therefore, try to elect when a crooked sign is rising.  (Ch 2)
  • Tropical (i.e. cardinal or moveable) signs (Aries, Cancer, Libra, Capricorn) indicate only brief activity so action break off before completion and need to be repeated.  Twin (i.e. mutable or common) signs (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces) indicate complexion so an additional condition will arise that needs to be addressed before the action completes.  Since both of these signs encourage additional demands, you should generally elect when a fixed sign (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius) is rising.  (Ch. 4)
  • It is stronger and more fortunate to elect when the sign rising is of the same sect as the time of the election, so to have a diurnal sign (i.e. fire or air sign, though the “triplicities” weren’t identified with the elements at the time of Dorotheus) rising during the day and a nocturnal (i.e. water or earth sign) rising during the night.  (Ch. 4)

When one combines these sentiments one should conclude that in general terms it is Aquarius (the crooked, fixed, diurnal sign) that is the most fortunate rising sign to elect with by day and Taurus (the crooked, fixed, nocturnal sign) that is the most fortunate rising sign to elect with by night.  Aries, Taurus, Gemini, and Leo by day, or Scorpio, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces by night, can give you two out of three.  Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, and Pisces by day or Aries, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo by night give only one of the three indications.  By this logic it is unwise to elect with Cancer or Virgo by day nor by Libra or Sagittarius by night, as they give none of the three indications, and would greatly encourage instability.  For the most part, this doctrine seems to have been lost, especially the part most emphasized by Dorotheus, that of the straight and crooked signs.

The Moon

The bulk of the information about the use of the Moon is in Chapter 5.  There is one interesting passage at the end of Chapter 5 that provides a different perspective than what we are used to.  I would like to bring it up first, so I will quote Pingree’s (2005) English translation:

Look concerning the commencement of every matter at the ascendent and the Moon.  The Moon is the strongest of what is [possible] if it is above the earth, especially if this is at night; the ascendent is the strongest of what is [possible] if the Moon is under the earth by day.    (Dorotheus, Book V, Ch. 5, p. 267)

This passage implies that rising sign should be given primary consideration by day (especially if the Moon is below the horizon) and the Moon should be given primary consideration by night (especially if she is above the horizon).  This is another fascinating doctrine that has apparently been lost and could be a fruitful avenue for further electional research.

In Chapter 4, besides indicating that it helps to facilitate the action when the Ascendant is in a sign that is in sect, Dorotheus also noted that it is good when the Moon is in a sign that is in sect (i.e. in a diurnal sign by day or a nocturnal sign by night), indicating a sort of parallel between the Ascendant and the Moon for elections, not unlike that noted in the two paragraphs above. There are also passages in Book V that imply that you want to avoid putting the Moon in a mutable sign, so the indications given for the rising sign also appear to be relevant for the Moon (perhaps more so at night when she is above the horizon).

Another contrast with typical traditional electional doctrine is that there is virtually no emphasis on the lord of the Ascendant.  However, the lord of the Moon is very important (and possibly that of the Sun).  In a passage in Ch. 5 that is attributed by the translator to Valens, it is advised that one is to pay great attention to the Sun and Moon and the lords of their signs (then the Sun is no longer mentioned and the section pertains only to the Moon).  The Moon is said to indicate the base or start of the action while its sign lord indicates how things end up.

When it comes to strengthening the Moon, we again find it at somewhat of a variance from the typical traditional doctrine.  Whereas we often heard it expressed that the Moon shouldn’t be in the Ascendant (i.e. rising sign or first house) for an election because it could create instability, in Book V we find it explicit advise to put the Moon (and its lord) in the Ascendant (1st house) or Midheaven (10th house) if possible, or in one of the stakes (1st, 10th, 7th, or 4th houses), and avoid putting the Moon (or its lord) in a cadent place (12th, 6th, 9th, 3rd).  My guess is that the doctrine of not putting the Moon in the Ascendant resulted from a later distortion of a passage on journeys in which Dorotheus advised not to put the Moon in the 1st if it was aspected harshly by a malefic at the start of a journey, presumably because that could cogently signify bodily harm.  Also, when it comes to strengthening planets, whether the Moon, her lord, or the planet she is conjoining (see below), but especially the Moon, then it is important to make sure she is not regarded (i.e. whole sign aspect) by malefics by square or opposition, and that she is regarded by the benefics.

Dorotheus advises to avoid starting an action when the Moon is corrupted, which he defines as pertaining to one of the following conditions:

  • Eclipse (just a lunar eclipse?), especially if in the sign it holds in the nativity or a sign of the same triplicity (i.e. element).
  • New Moon, because the Moon being hidden under the Sun’s light lacks exposure.  However, this is actually beneficial for elections involving secret actions, especially if commenced as the Moon is moving out from the rays.
  • Full Moon, i.e. Moon opposed to the Sun (quarrels, advantage to youngest (upset?)).
  • Moon in twelfth-part of a malefic (i.e. Mars or Saturn).
  • Moon in the bound of a malefic at the end of a sign.
  • Moon in the via combusta (15 Libra to 15 Scorpio?).
  • Moon in the 9th and in a twin (i.e. mutable or common) sign.
  • Slow and Slowing Moon, i.e. decreasing in speed while moving less than twelve degrees per day.

Finally, the way that the Moon’s aspects are viewed also has some subtle differences from typical traditional doctrine.  The separations of the Moon are typically not seen as very significant in traditional doctrine because they supposedly indicate the past, while the applications of the Moon are given crucial importance because they represent the future.  Dorotheus does assert that the separation indicates ongoing situations and what has passed while the application indicates things to come.  However, the separations of the Moon are given a great emphasis in Dorotheus.  In Chapter 5 the separations of the Moon (particularly those in the same sign) are indicative of the basis of the action and ideally should be from benefics unless it is a matter of fleeing from those who wish one harm (in which case the symbolism of the Moon fleeing from malefics takes precedence).  Interestingly, the importance of the separations is noted before the applications are discussed.  Similarly, in Chapter 28, for looking at event charts it is advised that one pays special attention to the planet the Moon separates from when the matter pertains to a situation that already exists which one wants ameliorated, such as an illness or imprisonment.  Also, when electing for buying and selling, Dorotheus advises that the Moon may symbolize the commodity, the planet she separates from the seller, and the planet she applies to the buyer, which makes the separating planet very important in an election for a seller.

The star to which the Moon connects (applies, especially if in the same sign) is very important, especially if the election pertains to creating a new situation rather than modifying an existing one.  Dorotheus advised to make the planet the Moon applies to strong, by putting it in a stake (i.e. angle) just as he advised for the Moon and its lord.

To summarize the Dorothean principles for using the Moon and the way they differ from typical traditional electional doctrine, I review the points below:

  • It is the Moon and Ascendant that are important in the Dorothean doctrine, but not the lord of the AscendantThe Ascendant is more important by day and the Moon is more important by night.
  • The type of sign the Moon is in plays a big role in facilitating the action, just as the type of sign of the Ascendant does in the Dorothean doctrine.
  • The Lord of the Moon is very important and signifies the final outcome so it should be strengthened.
  • A strong Moon (or planet generally) is one in an angle, especially the 1st or 10th house, while weakest is when cadent.
  • Avoid corruptions, like lunations, and harsh malefic influences on the Moon.
  • Pay attention to the separations of the Moon as the basis or foundation of the action, good or bad, and strengthen the planet the Moon conjoins to.
  • There is not concern given to having the Moon apply to such and such house lord of such and such topic – strengthening the topic itself pertains to natural significators which are addressed below.

Natural Significations

By natural significations I mean the significations of the planets themselves, as opposed to the accidental significations that planets take on by ruling or being in a certain topical house.  Natural significations are much more immediate and overt.  It is little wonder we see more of an emphasis on generally strengthening the planet that signifies the matter (much like turning the volume up on that planet’s energy and influence) in the early electional astrology of Dorotheus, rather than a preoccupation with connecting the lord of the first and the Moon with the lord of the house that pertains to the topic, an approach that became prominent in the Middle Ages.

First off, in Chapter 2, Dorotheus advised to make the benefics strong and the malefics weak.  By strong, he meant angular.  He explicitly advised to put the benefics in the angles, especially the 1st or 10th, and presumably we want the malefics to be cadent because he noted that malefics in the Ascendant (or regarding it) slow things down and create trouble. Next, in Chapter 5, Dorotheus advised to let Jupiter or Venus (the benefics) be in the 1st or the 10th and to make sure they are in good condition such as not under the beams or retrograde or in a mutable sign or cadent or in a dark place or regarded harshly or closely by malefics.  These are considerations which harness the natural significations of the benefics for good and ease, while minimizing the natural significations of the malefics for difficulty and trouble.

In Chapter 30, Dorotheus then additionally advised to look at the lord of the action and make sure it is in good condition.  He clarifies that he means the lord which naturally signifies the thing.  Here are some of the actions he associates with planets (and some pairings):

  • Saturn and Jupiter together: buying land (i.e. real estate), power of attorney
  • Mercury: theft, gifts, arguments, practice, partnership, insults, love, trades, cultural events
  • Venus: marriage, love, food, perfumes
  • Mars: fights, military, etc.
  • Jupiter: government, asking favors, momentous needs for good
  • Sun and Jupiter together: evident important matter not involving secrecy or evil


In conclusion, Dorothean electional astrology generally involves paying attention to the sign of the Ascendant and the Moon, and probably giving more attention to the sign of the Ascendant by day and that of the Moon by night.  It also involves generally strengthening the Moon and its lord, and the benefics, while secondarily strengthening the planet the Moon applies to and the natural significator of the matter, while weakening the malefics.  The 1st and 10th place become crucial in this matter, and the other angles secondary.

As you can see, there are many differences between the emphasis of the electional astrology of Dorotheus of the 1st century CE and that of the Middle Ages which continues to be a dominant influence over the practice of electional astrology today.  Only through keeping an open mind and a willingness to experiment can we decide the best times for facilitating actions.


Dorotheus of Sidon. (2005). Carmen Astrologicum. (D. Pingree, Trans.). Abingdon, MD: Astrology Center of America.

Astrological Predictive Techniques | Returns | 1. Hellenistic Basics

Returns: What Are They? 

A return, also called a revolution, is the arrival of a transiting planet to the same position it held at the time of one’s birth.  The solar return, or return of the Sun, which occurs approximately at a person’s birthday, was regarded as important even in the first strains of horoscopic astrology, in the Hellenistic world.  The basic idea is that the transits occurring at the time of the return give signs of the major events for the year.  The transits at the time of the Moon’s return, or lunar return, were later also considered important for giving signs of the important events for the month.

I have personally come to regard solar and lunar returns as among the most important and informative predictive tools at the astrologer’s disposal. In this thread, we will start with some Hellenistic basics of return interpretation , and from there add additional ways of interpreting returns from later authors.

For the most part, it appears that in early Hellenistic astrology returns were not regarded as a separate chart in their own right, but rather those transits occurring around the time of the birthday, when the Sun returns to the position it held at birth. Therefore, in this post, I address Dorotheus-style returns, in which we examine the rules for interpreting returns as a series of transits about the natal chart.  As the rules for interpreting returns in Dorotheus do not heavily rely upon exact timing of the return and do not seem to use a return chart in its own right, questions of precession and relocation of the return chart are largely irrelevant.  To find the transits of the return, we look to “…when the Sun enters the beginning of the minute in which it was on the day of the native’s nativity” (Dorotheus, Book IV, Ch. 1, #4, Pingree trans., 2005, p. 245).

Dorotheus on Returns

The 1st Century Hellenistic astrologer Dorotheus of Sidon gave some guidelines and aphorisms for the interpretation of the transits “on the day on which that native was born” or “in the turning of the years” in Chapter 1 of Book IV of his Carmen Astrologicum.  His entire exposition of this matter focuses on the occurrence of transiting planets into signs occupied by natal planets, and certain places or houses of the natal horoscope.  For a complete understanding of the guidelines given by Dorotheus, I urge the reader to pick up a copy of his work (click here to purchase on Amazon), which is essential reading in Hellenistic astrology, and one of the most influential works on later Persian and European medieval astrology.  For the reader’s convenience, I summarize some of his guidelines below:

  1. Being in whole sign opposition to natal position shows difficulty.  For instance, if Mars were in Capricorn in natal but in Cancer when the Sun returns to its natal position near the birthday.
  2. Out of sect malefic in natal chart reaching the place of the natal sect light or sect benefic shows great difficulty.  For instance, if a person was born by day with Sun or Jupiter in Sagittarius, and at the time of the return Mars is in Sagittarius.  From Dorotheus (Book IV, Ch. 1, #188, Pingree trans., 2005): “It is worse for this [native] and more difficult in its maleficence if Mars is reaching the place in which Jupiter or the Sun was by day, or [if] Saturn is reaching the place in which the Moon was by night.”  Generally, there are many guidelines that relate to the bad indicated when a return malefic is with, dominating (superior or right-hand square), opposed, or in inferior square to itself or an important natal position and the good indicated when a return benefic is with or trine to itself or an important natal position (and even good when dominating a malefic, see below).
  3. Overall, it is good when a malefic (i.e. Saturn or Mars) is in a whole sign trine to its natal position, and bad if it is in a whole sign opposition or square to its natal position, particularly if dominating (right-hand whole sign square) the natal position.  It is also good if a return benefic (i.e. Jupiter or Venus) is in a dominating position to a natal malefic (or even a return malefic?).    Similarly, it is good when the benefics are trine their natal positions.  However, it is difficult when the malefics are trine the natal positions of the benefics.  For instance, if one was born with Mars in Gemini, then it would be good for Mars to be in Libra or Aquarius at the return, and especially so if Venus were in Pisces because that sign is in a dominating position to Gemini.
  4. It is difficult when a return planet is in a place (i.e. house) of the nativity which is bad, especially if it possesses such a place natally as well.  According to Dorotheus (Book I, Ch. 5), the best places are the 1st, 10th, 11th, 5th, 7th, 4th, and 9th, in that order.  The worst places are the 6th and 12th, and after these the 8th, 2nd, and 3rd, in order from the worst of them.  For instance, if one were born with Aquarius rising and Mars in Capricorn, then it will be particularly bad if Mars is in Capricorn (natal 12th) or Cancer (natal 6th) in the return (Cancer would be particularly difficult as it would also evoke rule 1 above), and also could be difficult if Mars is in Virgo (natal 8th), Pisces (natal 2nd), or Aries (natal 3rd).
  5. Whole sign place occupied by the return Moon is particularly important, as are return planets reaching the place of the natal Moon.  Overall, the idea is that the return Moon with benefic natal planets shows good things,while with malefic natal planets shows bad things (particularly to health, and it is also so when return malefics reach the place of the natal Moon).  Some other notes include that the return Moon with natal Mercury shows work pertaining to the signification of natal Mercury, return Moon in natal 1st can show health danger, return Moon in natal 10th shows public events which are good or bad in accordance with influence of benefics and malefics, return Moon in natal 7th shows success over enemies, while return Moon in natal 4th shows  secret matters and/or success with writing a will.  Overall, these four whole sign places, also called the angles or stakes of the chart (the 1st, 10th, 7th, and 4th), give indications regarding more important matters in the native’s life.  For instance, if one were born with Pisces rising and Saturn was the out of sect malefic in the natal 10th, Sagittarius, then the Moon transiting in Sagittarius in the return could be indicative of some difficult public event, and even of cold or depleting health conditions.
  6. Planets in or transiting to the sign of the natal annual profection of the Ascendant, as well as the ruler of the profected Ascendant, are particularly important.  That is, solar returns tended to be used together with profections as part of a suite of annual predictive techniques.  The fourth book of Dorotheus thus explains both profections and solar returns.  For example, Dorotheus noted, “If the year reaches the sign in which Saturn was and Saturn is in it or aspects if from trine or quartile [i.e. square] or the seventh [i.e. opposition], then the native will have a bad reputation, and there will reach him folly and injury and hostility from men …”  (Book IV, Ch. 1, #23, Pingree trans., 2005).

A Few Examples

For these examples, I’ll be using the free open-source astrological software, Morinus.  You can download the traditional version of Morinus here.

I will examine the return by look first at the annual profection and indications related to it from the natal and return, then the impact concerning the angles of the chart and the lights, especially the Moon.  For each example, ignore the numbers on the outside of the chart, as those are for the house positions in the return chart itself, which we will for now ignore.

Example 1
Example 1 (CTRL+Click to enlarge)

Example 1 (above) is the 1958 return of someone born in 1935, and thus is that of someone who has turned 23, signalling an annual profection of the Ascendant to the 12th place, Gemini, ruled by and natally occupied by Mercury (see here if you don’t know how to figure out profections).  Mercury in the return is transiting in the natal 2nd, which is considered one of the bad places.  Natally, Mercury is in the 12th, which is considered one of the worst places, so by rule #4 above, we are getting the sense that the year could be difficult for this native, relating to Mercurial themes of movement and communication. Furthermore, the out of sect malefic Saturn, is transiting through the 6th of the natal, opposing Mercury, which is difficult in itself given Mercury’s status as lord of the year, but also emphasizes the natal configuration of Saturn dominating Mercury.  Natally, Saturn dominates Mercury, with Saturn in the 9th, concerning religion and foreign influence.  Saturn transiting in the 6th in the return dominates natal Saturn (see rule #3 above), exacerbating the maleficence of Saturn.  The transit of Venus through the sign of the profection, Gemini, is mixed, as she is a benefic with influence upon the lord of the year, but Venus is transiting through one of the worst places (the 12th), and occupies a bad place natally (the 2nd) – she rules the 4th of land and origins and the 11th of friends and aid, so she connects the native with those themes.

Both Jupiter and Mars are transiting in natal angles.  Jupiter in the 4th, where natal Mars is, signifies some degree of fortune as concerns land, origins, and workings in secret, but Mars is opposed to it and opposed to its natal position (see rule #1 above), setting off the difficulty pertaining to Mars in the 4th and with Mars in the rather public and status-oriented 10th, it is bringing violence to the fore.  Additionally, return Mars is in a dominating position to the natal Sun, signifying the threat of violence to the native.  The return Moon is in the 9th of foreign influence and religion, with Saturn, the out of sect malefic – this is both a sign of great difficulty and both the Moon and the 9th naturally signify journeys, so it connects that difficulty with journeys.

Example 1 is the chart of the 14th Dalai Lama (chart rated A for accuracy) and the return is that which preceded his fleeing the country he ruled in fear of his life to his exile in India, amid the spring 1959 Tibetan uprising.



Example 2 (CTRL+Click to enlarge)
Example 2 (CTRL+Click to enlarge)

Example 2 is the chart of someone turning 72, and as 72 is a multiple of 12, the annual profection was to the 1st place, Pisces, occupied by natal Saturn and ruled by Jupiter.  Jupiter, the lord of the profection is returning to its natal position in the 11th, which is a great place and significant for popularity, friends, aid, and so forth.  This person is a movie star and did in fact have a dozen films in the works in the year under consideration.

Deeper inspection reveals that not only is natal Saturn highlighted by the profection to the 1st, but Saturn is also transiting in an angle, the natal 7th, which is opposed to its natal position (see rule #1 above).  Looking at other angular factors, we also find that Mars is not only in the 10th, but actually conjunct the Sun within a degree.  The Sun is additionally dominated by that angular Saturn.  Given the affliction of the 1st, profection, and the Sun by both malefics, we are seeing some major indications of danger to the health, and public violence (Mars in the 10th).  Examining the Moon we find that it is in the 2nd, ruled by Mars, which is both opposed to its natal position (see rule #1) and also a bad place while in the natal it occupies the 8th, similarly a bad place pertaining to death, where she is with Mars, the out of sect malefic.  Therefore, we have strong indications of threat to health in the chart.

Example 2 is the chart of David Carradine (chart AA rated for accuracy) and his 2008 return which preceded his death of autoerotic asphyxiation, which had particularly damning effects upon the public image he left behind.


Example 3 (CTRL+Click to enlarge)
Example 3 (CTRL+Click to enlarge)

I will briefly touch on one more chart to emphasize something that came up with Example 2.  Example 3 is the 1994 return of someone born in 1967, thus 27 years of age, in a 4th place profection.  From the profection alone, the indications appear to be largely positive.  Jupiter, lord of the profection, may be transiting in one of the bad places (the 3rd) but it is the least bad of the bad, and natally Jupiter is in its joy in the 11th.  However, what is striking about the return is the occurrence of a conjunction of transiting Saturn to the Sun within a degree in an angle of the chart (and Saturn is returning to its natal place).  This theme of a close conjunction between a malefic and a light occurs with some frequency in returns that precede death, as it strongly signifies threat to health.  For instance, Ilya Zhitomirskiy, one of the founders of Diaspora, had a similar tight Sun-Saturn conjunction in the return preceding his own suicide (I blogged about this briefly here).  The 4th itself, place of the profection, also can signify death.

Example 3 is the chart of Kurt Cobain (rated A for accuracy) with the transits from his 1994 solar return, which preceded his suicide.


So far, I’ve only looked at a few solar return examples, and very briefly.  I will be examining more solar return examples and further techniques for interpreting returns and integrating them with other techniques in the future.  Overall, from Dorotheus we learn that returns can be significant as a set of transits to the natal chart itself, with the natal angles, lights, and the annual profection helping to guide us to which significations are most important.  Dorotheus looked at the overall influence of the benefics and malefics in this sense, and paid particular attention to the role of natal sect, natal and transiting place (i.e. whole sign house), and type of whole sign regard in modifying indications for better or worse.



Dorotheus of Sidon. (2005). Carmen Astrologicum. (D. Pingree, Trans.). Abingdon, MD: Astrology Center of America.